The objective of this study is to reveal the isotopic composition of ice and meltwater in glaciated regions of South-Eastern Altai. The paper depicts differences between the isotopic composition of glacier ice from several types of glaciers and from various locations. Detected differences between the isotopic composition of glacier ice in diversified parts of the study region are related to local climate patterns. Isotopic composition of meltwater and isotopic separation for glacier rivers runoff showed that in the Tavan-Bogd massif, seasonal snow participates more in the formation of glacier runoff due to better conditions for snow accumulation on the surface of glaciers. In other research areas pure glacier meltwater prevails in runoff.
This study examined the Chabagou River watershed in the gully region of the Loess Plateau in China’s Shaanxi Province, and was based on measured precipitation and runoff data in the basin over a 52-year period (1959–2010), land-use types, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), and other data. Statistical models and distributed hydrological models were used to explore the influences of climate change and human activity on the hydrological response and on the temporal and spatial evolution of the basin. It was found that precipitation and runoff in the gully region presented a downward trend during the 52-year period. Since the 1970s, the hydrological response to human activities has become the main source of regional hydrological evolution. Evapotranspiration from the large silt dam in the study area has increased. The depth of soil water decreased at first, then it increased by amount that exceeded the evaporation increase observed in the second and third change periods. The water and soil conservation measures had a beneficial effect on the ecology of the watershed. These results provide a reference for water resource management and soil and water conservation in the study area.
The present research evaluates the simulation of a system for transforming inland-fisheries wastewater into sustainable fish feed using Designer® software. The data required were obtained from the experimental cultivation of Chlorella sp. in wastewater supplemented with N and P. According to the results, it is possible to produce up to 11,875 kg/year (31.3 kg/d) with a production cost of up to 18 (USD/kg) for dry biomass and 0.19 (USD/bottle) for concentrated biomass. Similarly, it was possible to establish the kinetics of growth of substrate-dependent biomass with a maximum production of 1.25 g/L after 15 days and 98% removal of available N coupled with 20% of P. It is essential to note the final production efficiency may vary depending on uncontrollable variables such as climate and quality of wastewater, among others.
Nitrates are one of the most common groundwater contaminants and they come from different sources. The paper presents a study of groundwater quality at Varaždin wellfield in the north part of Croatia. The nitrate concentration at this location has been above the maximum allowed concentration for several decades, which has made the opening of new wellfields costly. Based on the previously developed groundwater flow model, a model that covers the narrow area of the wellfield is developed. The influential zone of the observed wellfield in working conditions is determined. Based on the developed model, the sources of nitrate pollution are located, which can be generally divided into non-point and point sources. Considering the time of groundwater retention in the horizontal flow, it is concluded that the water protection zones are marked following the applicable ordinance. Based on the developed groundwater flow model at the observed wellfield, a simulation of nitrate pollution propagation by advection and dispersion processes is performed. The simulation results point out the location of the poultry landfill as the largest source of nitrate pollution. However, poultry farms, which are located in the influence area of the wellfield, also contribute significantly to the nitrate concentration at the wellfield.
In this study, we apply a bibliometric analysis to characterize publication data on droughts, mainly focusing on drought indices (DIs), drought risk (DR), and drought forecast (DF). Data on publications on these selected topics were obtained through the Scopus database, covering the period from 1963 to June 2021. The DI-related publications, based on meteorological, soil moisture, hydrological, remote sensing, and composite/modeled Dis, accounted for 57%, 8%, 4%, 29%, and 2% of the scientific sources, respectively. DI-related studies showed a notable increase since the 1990s, due perhaps to a higher number of major droughts during the last three decades. It was found that USA and China were the two leading countries in terms of publication count and academic influence on the DI, DR, and DF studies. A network analysis of the country of residence of co-authors on DR and DF research highlighted the top three countries, which were the USA, China, and the United Kingdom. The most productive journal for the DI studies was found to be the International Journal of Climatology, whereas Natural Hazards was identified as the first-ranked journal for the DR and DF studies. In relation to individual researchers, Singh VP from the USA was found to be the most prolific author, having the greatest academic influence on DF study, whereas Zhang Q from China was identified as the most productive author on DR study. This bibliometric analysis reveals that further research is needed on droughts in the areas of risk management, water management, and drought management. This review maps trends of previous research in drought science, covering several important aspects, such as drought indices, geographic regions, authors and their collaboration paths, and sub-topics of interest. This article is expected to serve as an index of the current state of knowledge on drought warning systems and as guidance for future research needs.
Urbanization results in higher stormwater loadings of pollutants such as metals and nutrients into surface waters. This directly impacts organisms in aquatic ecosystems, including microbes. Sediment microbes are known for pollution reduction in the face of contamination, making bacterial communities an important area for bioindicator research. This study explores the pattern of bacterial responses to metal and nutrient pollution loading and seeks to evaluate whether bacterial indicators can be effective as a biomonitoring risk assessment tool for wetland ecosystems. Microcosms were built containing sediments collected from wetlands in the urbanizing Pike River watershed in southeastern Wisconsin, USA, with metals and nutrients added at 7 day intervals. Bacterial DNA was extracted from the microcosm sediments, and taxonomical profiles of bacterial communities were identified up to the genera level by sequencing 16S bacterial rRNA gene (V3–V4 region). Reduction of metals (example: 90% for Pb) and nutrients (example: 98% for NO3−) added in water were observed. The study found correlations between diversity indices of genera with metal and nutrient pollution as well as identified specific genera (including Fusibacter, Aeromonas, Arthrobacter, Bacillus, Bdellovibrio, and Chlorobium) as predictive bioindicators for ecological risk assessment for metal pollution.
This paper analyzes the groundwater in the deep Quaternary aquifer of Eastern Croatia. These waters are collected at the Vinogradi Pumping Station (Osijek, Croatia) for the needs of public water supply. This research aimed to assess the impact of climate extremes, namely, high air temperatures and low rainfall, on the quantity and quality of groundwater. On the basis of data from the Vinogradi Pumping Station in the period 1987–2015, three extremely warm and low-water years were singled out. For these three years, the following were analyzed: climate diagrams, groundwater levels (in the piezometers closest to and farthest from the pumping station), and the quality of the affected groundwater. The results of this research indicate that the reaction of aquifers to the analyzed extreme climatic conditions for the observed period was manifested in the variation of the amplitude of groundwater levels by a maximum of 4–5 m. Considering the total thickness of the affected layers (60–80 m), this variation is not a concern from the point of view of water supply. As for the quality of groundwater, it was found to be of constant quality in its composition and was not affected by climatic extremes.
In this paper, a review of a semi-empirical modelling approach for cohesive sediment transport in river systems is presented. The mathematical modelling of cohesive sediment transport is a challenge because of the number of governing parameters controlling the various transport processes involved in cohesive sediment, and hence a semi-empirical approach is a viable option. A semi-empirical model of cohesive sediment called the RIVFLOC model developed by Krishnappan is reviewed and the model parameters that need to be determined using a rotating circular flume are highlighted. The parameters that were determined using a rotating circular flume during the application of the RIVFLOC model to different river systems include the critical shear stress for erosion of the cohesive sediment, critical shear stress for deposition according to the definition of Partheniades, critical shear stress for deposition according to the definition of Krone, the cohesion parameter governing the flocculation of cohesive sediment and a set of empirical parameters that define the density of the floc in terms of the size of the flocs. An examination of the variability of these parameters shows the need for testing site-specific sediments using a rotating circular flume to achieve a reliable prediction of the RIVFLOC model. Application of the model to various river systems has highlighted the need for including the entrapment process in a cohesive sediment transport model.
Streams and rivers are becoming increasingly intermittent in Alpine regions due to the global climate change and related increases of local water abstractions, making it fundamental to investigate the occurrence of supraseasonal drying events and their correlated effects. We aimed to investigate leaf litter decomposition, the C:N ratio of the litter, and changes in associated macroinvertebrate communities in three reaches of the Po River: One upstream, consistently perennial, a perennial mid-reach with high hydrological variability, and an intermittent downstream reach. We placed leaf litter bags of two leaf types—chestnut and oak; both showed comparable decomposition rates, but the remaining litter mass was different and was attributed to the C:N ratio and palatability. Furthermore, (1) in perennial reaches, leaf litter decomposed faster than in the intermittent ones; (2) in intermittent reaches, the C:N ratio showed a decreasing trend in both leaf types, indicating that drying affected the nitrogen consumption, therefore the conditioning phase; (3) associated macroinvertebrate communities were richer and more stable in perennial reaches, where a higher richness and abundance of EPT taxa and shredders was observed. Our results suggest that the variations in the hydrology of mountain streams caused by global climate change could significantly impact on functional processes and biodiversity of benthic communities.
Research analyzing perceptions of water services has focused on water quality, water safety, and the propensity to consume water from different sources. It has not assessed perceptions of water costs. To address this knowledge gap, this study collected nationally representative survey data from households in the United States about water issues and incorporated these data into logistic regression models. In doing so, our study advances the water and public policy literature in three ways. One, it addresses the need for household resolution information about water issues given the absence of data at this scale in the United States. Two, it creates and utilizes one-of-a-kind survey data to understand the perceptions of household water bills and the drivers of these perceptions. Three, we assess the impact of proposed solutions to improve water affordability on household perceptions of water costs. Model results indicate low-income and households in underrepresented groups were more likely to perceive their water bills to be too high. The perception of water costs also varied geographically. From a policy perspective, model results indicate utilities can positively affect perceptions of water bills via the frequency of water billing and provision of payment assistance programs.