Abstract Excessive intake of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as, diclofenac sodium (DS) may lead to toxicity in the rats. In this work, we aimed to examine the protective impact of lentil extract (LE) and folic acid (FA) on the hematological markers, the kidney tissue oxidative stress and the renal function against diclofenac sodium (DS) in male albino rats. The rats (120-150 g) were divided into four equal groups randomly, the first group kept as the untreated control. The second group was administrated with DS (11.6 mg/kg b.wt. orally once/day). The third group was received DS+FA (11.6 mg/kg b.wt.+76.9 microgram/kg b.wt.) orally once/day. The fourth group was treated with DS+LE (11.6 mg/kg b.wt.+500 mg/kg b.wt.) orally once/day. After four weeks, the results revealed that DS produced a significant decrease in the values of red blood cells (RBCs), hemoglobin concentration (Hb), hematocrit (HCT) and white blood cells (WBCs). On the other hand, there was a significant increase in the platelets count. Also, DS induced a renal deterioration; this was evidenced by the significant increase in the serum levels of urea, creatinine, uric acid, Na, Ca, Mg as well as the nitric oxide (NO) level in the kidney tissue. Also, there were a significant reduction in the serum levels of potassium (K) and reduced glutathione (GSH) in the kidney homogenates. Moreover, the findings in the rats treated by DS+LE or DS+FA showed a potential protection on the hematological markers, oxidative stress in the kidney tissue and the renal function disturbed by DS. LE and FA could play a potent role for the prevention the adverse hematological, the kidney tissue oxidative stress and the renal dysfunction caused by DS via their anti-oxidative and bioactive phytochemicals.
Folate is a B-vitamin required for DNA synthesis, methylation, and cellular division, whose deficiencies are associated with various disorders and diseases. Currently, most folic acid used for fortification is synthesized chemically, causing undesirable side effects. However, using folate-producing probiotics is a viable option, which fortify folate in situ and regulate intestinal microbiota. In this study, the folate production potential of newly isolated strains from raw milk was analyzed by microbiological assay. Latilactobacillus sakei LZ217 showed the highest folate production in Folic Acid Assay Broth, 239.70 ± 0.03 ng/μL. The folate produced by LZ217 was identified as 5-methyltetrahydrofolate. LZ217 was tolerant to environmental stresses (temperature, pH, NaCl, and ethanol), and was resistant to gastrointestinal juices. Additionally, the in vitro effects of LZ217 on human gut microbiota were investigated by fecal slurry cultures. 16S rDNA gene sequencing indicated that fermented samples containing LZ217 significantly increased the abundance of phylum Firmicutes and genus Lactobacillus, Faecalibacterium, Ruminococcus 2, Butyricicoccus compared to not containing. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) analysis revealed that LZ217 also increased the production of butyric acid by fermentation. Together, L. sakei LZ217 could be considered as a probiotic candidate to fortify folate and regulate intestinal microecology.
The depression mood during their second and third trimesters has a negative impact on both the mother and her child. Compared with pregnant women in urban areas, rural pregnant women who are in more disadvantaged situation may have more serious psychological problems. Particular, many rural pregnant women had internal migrant work experience during pregnancy in rural China. It is thus necessary to study the prevalence of depressive symptoms and correlated factors among Chinese northwest rural pregnant women.
This study was conducted from October 2017 to April 2018 and surveyed 1053 pregnant women in the middle and late stages of pregnancy who were registered in rural areas, gave informed consent and did not suffer from cognitive impairment or severe mental illness. Depressive symptoms were evaluated by the Chinese Version of the Short Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-C21). Demographic characteristics, pregnancy characteristics and family factors were obtained through structured questionnaires. This study employed multiple factor logistic regression to analyze the relationship between depressive symptoms and their correlates.
The prevalence of depressive symptoms among pregnant women during their second and third trimesters was 16.14% (95%CI 13.92%-18.36%). Higher education levels (OR = 0.50; 95%CI 0.29–0.85) and taking folic acid (OR = 0.59; 95%CI 0.39–0.89) reduced the risk of depression symptoms. The family receiving rural welfare (OR = 1.69; 95%CI 1.04–2.75), migration for work (OR = 1.95; 95%CI 1.03–3.71) and living with both parents and parents-in-law (OR = 2.55; 95%CI 1.09–5.96) increased the risk of depressive symptoms.
The prevalence of depressive symptoms among pregnant women during their second and third trimesters in Northwest rural China was 16.14% that was nearly 4 percentage points higher than the average survey result of the pregnant women in developed countries and was higher than the findings in Chinese urban areas. To prevent depression symptoms, it’s essential to early screen and provide folic acid for free when antenatal examination. Moreover, maternal examination files should be established so that wo pay attention to the psychological status of pregnant women who were with low education levels, poor family economic situations, excessive parental burden and who had been migrant workers.
Background and objectives: Neural tube defects are congenital anomalies which canlead to infant death and serious disability. They are initiated during embryogenesis, between the 23rd and 27th day of fetal life, and can be prevented by the administration of folic acid. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the knowledge and practice of Saudi women at childbearing age regarding NTDs and FA supplementation. Methodology: This is a cross-sectional study on Saudi women of reproductive age who were asked to complete an online survey to examine their knowledge and practice regarding folic acid supplementation and neural tube defects. Descriptive and simple linear regression analyses were conducted using SPSS v.26 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Results: A total of 613 women have completed the questionnaire, from which the majority (46.7%) were aged between 36 and 40 years. About 94% of women heard about folic acid and 80% indicated that its deficiency has some relation to neural tube defects. Approximately 37%, 25.3%, and 23.2% of women reported the proper time for folic acid intake to be during first trimester of pregnancy, before pregnancy, or throughout pregnancy, respectively. Linear regression analysis revealed that increase age and education were significantly correlated with a decrease in folic acid administration (p = 0.008) and (p = 0.001), respectively. However, there was no association between time of folic acid administration and income or number of parities. Conclusion: Despite the acceptable level of awareness about the relation of folic acid and neural tube defects, our results revealed that more education is required towards the proper time of supplementation among Saudi childbearing women.
The relation of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is still uncertain. We aimed to examine the prospective association between serum ALP and CKD progression, and the modifying effect of serum ALP on folic acid in preventing CKD progression in treated hypertensive patients. This is a post-hoc analysis of 12,734 hypertensive adults with relevant measurements and without liver disease at baseline from the renal sub-study of the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial, where participants were randomly assigned to daily treatments of 10 mg enalapril and 0.8 mg folic acid, or 10 mg enalapril alone. The primary outcome was CKD progression, defined as a decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of ≥30% and to a level of <60 ml/min/1.73 m2 if baseline eGFR was ≥60 ml/min/1.73 m2; or a decrease in eGFR of ≥50% if baseline eGFR was <60 ml/min/1.73 m2; or end-stage renal disease. Over a median of 4.4 years, in the enalapril only group, participants with baseline serum ALP≥110IU/L (quartile 4) had a significantly higher risk of CKD progression (3.4% vs 2.3%; adjusted OR,1.61; 95%CI:1.11, 2.32), compared with those with ALP<110IU/L. For those with enalapril and folic acid treatment, compared with the enalapril only treatment, the risk of CKD progression was reduced from 3.4 to 2.1% (adjusted OR, 0.53; 95%CI:0.34, 0.83) among participants with baseline ALP≥110IU/L, whereas there was no significant effect among those with ALP<110IU/L. In hypertensive patients, higher serum ALP was associated with increased risk of CKD progression, and this risk was reduced by 47% with folic acid treatment.
Purpose: To evaluate the characteristics and biodistribution of trans resveratrol-PEG-folic acid-gold nanoparticle conjugates (rsv-PEG-FA-AuNP).
Methods: Gold nanoparticles were produced by citric reduction followed by conjugation of PEG-folic acid and resveratrol. Characterization of rsv-PEG-FA-AuNP conjugates including their particle size, zeta potential, and by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was carried out. Biodistribution study of rsv-PEG-FA-AuNP was carried out using female Sprague Dawley rats. Biodistribution data were obtained from high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis.
Results: The mean particle size and zeta potential of rsv-PEG-FA-AuNP were 249.03 ± 10.31 and - 36.33 ± 3.12 mV, respectively. TEM images showed rsv-PEG-FA-AuNP conjugates formed spherical shape. Rsv-PEG-FA-AuNP conjugates found in plasma, kidney (1.90 ± 0.20 μg/g), spleen (2.65 ± 1.18 μg/g), liver (1.74 ± 0.03 μg/g), and lung (1.82 ± 0.12 μg/g), after 90 minutes intravenous administration (i.v.) in female Sprague Dawley rats. No free resveratrol was found in plasma, kidney, or spleen after i.v administration in female dawdle Sprague Dawley rats.
Conclusion: Resveratrol-PEG-FA-AuNP conjugates appear to be a potential chemotherapy delivery system for active targeting purposes because of its longer systemic circulation and its accumulation in the kidney.
The metal organic framework (MOF) member, MIL-100(Fe), is considered as attractive drug nanocarrier that may be due to the great porosity, colloidal stability, and biocompatibility. In the present study, the new electrochemical synthesis procedure was presented for MIL-100(Fe) building block, and secondly, folic acid (FA) was introduced to the structure for assessing its potential targeted ability to be entrapped by folic acid-positive breast cancer cells, MCF-7. Several techniques such as SEM, XRD, and FT-IR were used to characterize synthesized nanostructures. Both MIL-100(Fe) and MIL-100(Fe)/FA nanoparticles were between 50 to 200 nm with a slightly positive net charge with an area of 1350 and 831.84 m2/g, respectively. The prodigiosin (PG) is selected as a model drug for MIL-100(Fe) and MIL-100(Fe)/FA-targeted delivery owing to its natural fluorescence and cancer cell selectiveness. The loading capacity of both nanocarrier was around 40% with 93-97% loading efficacy. Moreover, the pH-sensitive prodigiosin release rate of MIL-100(Fe)@PG and MIL-100(Fe)/FA@PG showed that 69 to 73% of the drug was released after 24 hours in an acidic environment with around 20% unwanted leakage. The anticancer potential MIL-100(Fe)/FA cells showed the improvement of selective index (SI) from 3.21 to 12.48 which means that folic acid acts as an effective ligand. The study of cells treated with fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry analysis reveals the dependence of the receptor on the nanoparticle through endocytosis. Considering the effects of nanoparticles on healthy cells, MIL-100(Fe) and MIL-100(Fe)/FA nanoparticles can be introduced as targeted drug delivery systems for smart targeting breast cancer cells with minimal side effects.
Dietary diversity and adequate nutrient intake are essential for conducting a healthy life. However, women in low-income settings often face difficulties in ensuring dietary quality. This research assessed relationships between the dietary diversity, nutrient adequacy, and socio-economic factors among women of reproductive age (WRA) in Kyrgyzstan. A cross-sectional study was undertaken in four locations, including two rural and two urban areas in the north and south of Kyrgyzstan. A survey with pre-coded and open-ended questions was employed during the interviews of 423 WRAs aged 18–49. Data collection was conducted in March–May 2021. The average value body mass index (BMI) of WRA was 24.2 ± 4.6 kg/m2. The dietary diversity score (DDS) was higher among rural women (common language effect size) cles = 0.67, adjusted p < 0.001) in the northern region (cles = 0.61, p < 0.05) who have cropland (cles = 0.60, p < 0.001) and a farm animal (cles = 0.60, p < 0.05). Mean nutrient adequacy ratio (NAR) was below 1 in most micronutrients, whereas thiamine, riboflavin, vitamins B6 and C, folic acid, calcium, and magnesium were even lower than 0.5. Women with a kitchen garden or a cropland had better NAR energy (cles = 0.57), NAR carbohydrate (cles = 0.60), NAR fiber (cles = 0.60), NAR vitamin B1 (cles = 0.53), and NAR folic acid (cles = 0.54). Respondents who receive remittances and a farm animal have better NARs for energy, carbohydrates, fiber, vitamin B1, folic acid, iron, zinc, and mean adequacy ratio for 16 nutrients (MAR 16) than those who do not. Education and income have a negative correlation with dietary quality. This study contributes to the limited literature on the quality of diets in Kyrgyzstan. Hidden hunger and undernutrition are a severe problem among WRA in low-income settings. Recommendations are including study programs in nutrition, teaching households farming practices, and raising awareness on adequate nutrition.