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Sex Roles ◽  
2021 ◽  
Tamara Turner-Moore ◽  
Kate Milnes ◽  
Brendan Gough

AbstractSexual bullying refers to bullying or harassment that is sexualised, related to sexuality, and/or related to gender expression (Duncan, 1999). Research on sexual bullying is disparate and still developing as a field. This study extends on this research through a mixed-methods analysis of the different forms of sexual bullying and the relationships between them across five European nations. Participants were 253 young people (aged 13–18) from Bulgaria, England, Italy, Latvia and Slovenia. As part of focus groups on sexual bullying, participants individually and anonymously completed a Sexual Bullying Questionnaire (SBQ), comprising closed- and open-ended questions about their experiences of victimisation and bullying their peers. Factor analysis identified five forms of sexual bullying victimisation and two forms of sexual bullying towards peers. The quantitative and qualitative findings indicated that bullying or harassment that is sexualised, related to sexuality, and/or related to gender expression are associated with each other. Further, sexual bullying was found to be common to all five European countries indicating that it is a cross-national issue. The associations between sexualised, sexuality and gender expression bullying or harassment support the use of the term sexual bullying to unite these forms of peer victimisation in research and practice. Further, all countries studied require initiatives to address sexual bullying, and the gender and sexual norms that may contribute to it, with tailoring to the country context.

2021 ◽  
Daniela Rodríguez ◽  
Remco Timermmans ◽  
Emma Holling ◽  
Oniosun Temidayo Isaiah

This paper is the result of an international, intercultural and interdisciplinary study on the outreach challenges of preparing students between the ages of 15 and 25 years for a career in the space industry. This qualitative study aimed to find and compile the best outreach practices and recommendations for engaging young people in an increasingly diverse world. Traditionally, space outreach has been biased and limited to a small number of careers in leading nations in the space industry. With the industry undergoing huge changes, new space actors are emerging even in nations that lack a national space program. Thus a new challenge for outreach professionals is to paint a realistic and updated picture of the paths towards a career in space in this new industry for their young audience. Not only have opportunities for space outreach grown in new geographies, with their own cultural and lingual characteristics, but also in traditional space nations, which are driving towards a more inclusive and diverse communication to their audiences.This paper is built around a literature study into outreach for diversity in the space industry, plus a survey among space outreach practitioners around the world. The analysis of this survey, in the context of literature findings, leads to new insights into outreach practices for new space audiences, the challenges involved in engaging these new audiences, and in providing them with an objective perspective of career opportunities in the local and international space sector. The analysis includes topics like the diversity of role models and the advantages of using varied channels to reach young audiences. The paper concludes with a set of practical recommendations for space outreach professionals and researchers.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Giacomo Ciocca ◽  
Tommaso B. Jannini ◽  
Michele Ribolsi ◽  
Rodolfo Rossi ◽  
Cinzia Niolu ◽  

A considerable body of literature reports that individuals with psychotic disorders often suffer from sexual dysfunctions (SDs), with these representing a major unmet need. Long-term antipsychotic drug treatment may be the main cause for SDs in psychotic patients, through a plethora of different mechanisms, including prolactin dyscrasia, histamine-mediated sedation, and serotonin-induced sexual demotivation. However, a few pieces of evidence treat sexuality in patients at risk or the onset of psychosis. For this purpose, we systematically reviewed literature of the last 10 years in order to investigate sexuality in ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis and first-episode psychosis (FEP). We included in our review 34 articles fitting our research criteria on SDs in UHR and FEP. Evidence of SDs in the transition from UHR to FEP emerges through the selected studies. In FEP, sexuality is affected by the severity of the psychotic symptoms and, in some cases, by the iatrogenic effects of psychopharmacological treatment. Further experimental and clinical studies should systematically investigate the role of sexual functioning in the transition from UHR to FEP and, consequently, clarify whether or not SDs could be considered a possible marker for the onset of psychosis in at-risk populations. Moreover, psychiatrists and clinical psychologists should take into consideration the role of sexual life in young people with prodromal mental symptoms or at the onset of psychosis. Focusing on a thorough sexual evaluation might be a major challenge that could break down barriers of mental health promotion among young people with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders and therefore achieve better clinical outcomes.

2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (2) ◽  
Jordan Kraemer

For many cosmopolitan urban Germans and Europeans in Berlin in the late 2000s, social media platforms were a site where gender and class were enacted through articulations of emergent nerd masculinity or hip, ironic femininity. But these platforms, such as Facebook or Pinterest, encoded normative assumptions about masculinity and femininity in their visual and interaction design, excluding women and acceptable femininity as subjects of technological expertise. Sites that presented themselves as neutral spaces for connection and interaction, like Twitter or Facebook, instantiated gendered understandings of technology that rendered public space implicitly masculine, white, and middle class. Visually based sites like Pinterest and Etsy, in contrast, were marked as domains of feminine domesticity, representing not only a shift to visual communication but to visual modes of interaction that structured gender online. Although many young people resisted hegemonic notions of gender, their social media practices stabilized their class status as aspiring urban cosmopolitans. In this article, I consider how gender and class stabilized temporarily through material-semiotic engagements with technology interfaces.

2021 ◽  
Josiane WARSZAWSKI ◽  
Laurence Meyer ◽  
Jeanna-Eve Franck ◽  
Delphine Rahib ◽  
Nathalie Lydie ◽  

Background: We aimed to study whether social patterns of exposure to SARS-CoV-2 infection changed in France throughout the year 2020, in light to the easing of social contact restrictions. Methods: A population-based cohort of individuals aged 15 years or over was randomly selected from the national tax register to collect socio-economic data, migration history, and living conditions in May and November 2020. Home self-sampling on dried blood was proposed to a 10% random subsample in May and to all in November. A positive anti-SARS-CoV-2 ELISA IgG result against the virus spike protein (ELISA-S) was the primary outcome. The design, including sampling and post-stratification weights, was taken into account in univariate and multivariate analyses. Results: Of the 134,391 participants in May, 107,759 completed the second questionnaire in November, and respectively 12,114 and 63,524 were tested. The national ELISA-S seroprevalence was 4.5% [95%CI: 4.0%-5.1%] in May and 6.2% [5.9%-6.6%] in November. It increased markedly in 18-24-year-old population from 4.8% to 10.0%, and among second-generation immigrants from outside Europe from 5.9% to 14.4%. This group remained strongly associated with seropositivity in November, after controlling for any contextual or individual variables, with an adjusted OR of 2.1 [1.7-2.7], compared to the majority population. In both periods, seroprevalence remained higher in healthcare professions than in other occupations. Conclusion: The risk of Covid-19 infection increased among young people and second-generation migrants between the first and second epidemic waves, in a context of less strict social restrictions, which seems to have reinforced territorialized socialization among peers.

2021 ◽  
Vol 32 ◽  
pp. 128-142
Joanna Krongold

This article addresses the emergence of the Canadian Holocaust literature canon for young readers, closely examining the work of Carol Matas and Kathy Kacer to explore how the Holocaust can be narrated for children. Largely understudied despite their productivity and popularity, Matas and Kacer rely on the narrative strategy of blending invented or imagined characters with factually accurate situations and experiences. By using the tools that historical fiction offers, these two prolific Canadian authors demonstrate the possibilities of multifaceted, educational, and engaging texts about the Holocaust for young people while preserving the “open hearts” of the characters at the centre of their stories.Cet article traite de l’émergence de la littérature canadienne sur l’Holocauste pour les jeunes lecteurs, en examinant de près le travail de Carol Matas et de Kathy Kacer pour explorer comment l’Holocauste peut être raconté aux enfants. En dépit de leur productivité et de leur popularité, Matas et Kacer n’ont pas fait l’objet d’études approfondies. Elles s’appuient sur une stratégie narrative qui consiste à mêler des personnages inventés ou imaginés à des situations et des expériences factuelles exactes. En utilisant les outils qu’offre la fiction historique, ces deux auteures canadiennes prolifiques démontrent les possibilités de textes à facettes multiples, éducatifs et engageants sur l’Holocauste pour les jeunes,

2021 ◽  
Vida Kasore ◽  
Enoch Acheampong ◽  
Frances Emily Owusu-Ansah ◽  
Mark Owusu ◽  
Ampeh Unity Worlanyo ◽  

Abstract Background: Substance use-related disorders have become a major psychiatric issue globally. The energetic youth who contribute meaningfully to national development are the most affected population by this social menace. This study aimed to examine the knowledge and perception of the youth on substance use-related disorders and the perceived effects on their lives.Methods: The study used a qualitative approach to explore the perceptions of substance use-related disorders in the Kwabre-East Municipality of the Ashanti Region of Ghana. The purposive technique was used to select 35 participants based on a set of inclusion and exclusion criteria. The data were gathered through focus group discussions and interviews in the Twi language and audio-recorded. Data were transcribed from Twi to English in a written form. The data were categorized into themes based on similarities and differences. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the data. The emerged themes have been presented as main findings, which are supported by quotations from the participants. Results: The study identified that substances commonly abused by the youth were alcohol, tramadol, gasoline product, glue, and marijuana. Again, it was found that peer influence, poor parental control, and loss of a job (poverty), perceived academic enhancement, and imitation of role models were factors that caused substance abuse among the youth. In addition, the following were identified in terms of the effects: mental illness, cardiovascular conditions, family exclusion, insecurity, and stigmatization.Conclusion: The initiation and implementation of drug preventive interventions by relevant stakeholders are crucial in preventing the commencement of any undesirable behaviour among the youth as far as substance abuse is concerned.

Gargie Ahmad ◽  
Sally McManus ◽  
Laia Bécares ◽  
Stephani L. Hatch ◽  
Jayati Das-Munshi

Abstract Purpose The relationship between ethnicity and adolescent mental health was investigated using cross-sectional data from the nationally representative UK Millennium Cohort Study. Methods Parental Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire reports identified mental health problems in 10,357 young people aged 14 (n = 2042 from ethnic minority backgrounds: Mixed n = 492, Indian n = 275, Pakistani n = 496, Bangladeshi n = 221, Black Caribbean n = 102, Black African n = 187, Other Ethnic Group n = 269). Univariable logistic regression models investigated associations between each factor and outcome; a bivariable model investigated whether household income explained differences by ethnicity, and a multivariable model additionally adjusted for factors of social support (self-assessed support, parental relationship), participation (socialising, organised activities, religious attendance), and adversity (bullying, victimisation, substance use). Results were stratified by sex as evidence of a sex/ethnicity interaction was found (P = 0.0002). Results There were lower unadjusted odds for mental health problems in boys from Black African (OR 0.15, 95% CI 0.04–0.61) and Indian backgrounds (OR 0.42, 95% CI 0.21–0.86) compared to White peers. After adjustment for income, odds were lower in boys from Black African (OR 0.10, 95% CI 0.02–0.38), Indian (OR 0.40, 95% CI 0.21–0.77), and Pakistani (OR 0.49, 95% CI 0.27–0.89) backgrounds, and girls from Bangladeshi (OR 0.18, 95% CI 0.05–0.65) and Pakistani (OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.41–0.99) backgrounds. After further adjustment for social support, participation, and adversity factors, only boys from a Black African background had lower odds (OR 0.16, 95% CI 0.03–0.71) of mental health problems. Conclusions Household income confounded lower prevalence of mental health problems in some young people from Pakistani and Bangladeshi backgrounds; findings suggest ethnic differences are partly but not fully accounted for by income, social support, participation, and adversity. Addressing income inequalities and socially focused interventions may protect against mental health problems irrespective of ethnicity.

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