Recently Published Documents
The Role of Plant-Based Protein Functional Food in Preventing Acute Respiratory Disease: A Case Study
The Kaliningrad region is known for its specific climate, which can negatively affect the adaptive potential of the body. This manifests in an increased incidence of respiratory diseases and skin conditions. To prevent high morbidity, a plant protein product was included in the diet of first-year university students. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of this food intervention in preventing the most common diseases among Kaliningrad students. Two groups of university students took part in the food trial. In the control group, catabolic processes prevailed in nutrient metabolism. Disadaptation manifested itself in the metabolism of proteins, vitamins, minerals, hematopoiesis and humoral immunity. Inflammation was indicated by α1- and α2-globulins, a weak immune response, and IgM and IgG. High oxidative stress and low antioxidative ability of blood serum were observed. The plant-based protein product (FP) helped preserve testosterone level and prevent an increase in catabolic reactions. Moreover, it had a positive effect on both red blood cell hematopoiesis (a smaller increase in the average volume of erythrocytes, the same average concentration and content of hemoglobin, an increased relative red cell distribution width (RDW) and white blood cell hematopoiesis (a beneficial effect for the immune system: lymphocytes, the relative content of neutrophils, monocytes, basophils and eosinophils). The stimulation of humoral immunity was evidenced by beta- and gamma-globulins, an active immune response, the level of IgM and IgG, antioxidant protection, reduction of peroxides and an increase in antioxidant activity of blood serum. The 34-week observation showed a 1.7-fold decrease in the incidence of respiratory illnesses and a 5.7-fold decrease in skin and subcutaneous tissue diseases. Acute respiratory infections were reduced 1.8-fold. There were no cases of community-acquired pneumonia in the treatment group, compared with 55.1‰ in the control group. The incidence of respiratory diseases was 3.3–10.6 times lower in the treatment group than in the control group in weeks 6–19. The findings testify to the prophylactic effect of functional food during social adaptation and acclimatization of students.
A Multiomic Approach to Investigate the Effects of a Weight Loss Program on the Intestinal Health of Overweight Horses
Obesity is endemic in human populations in the western society, and with mounting evidence that the intestinal ecological environment plays a major role in its pathogenesis, identification of therapies based on intestinal microbiota modulation are gaining attention. Obesity in companion animals is also a common clinical problem. We set out using a multidimensional approach, to determine the effectiveness and safety of a weight loss program for horses incorporating diet restriction and exercise. In addition, we aimed to investigate the effect of this program on the overall intestinal health of overweight sedentary horses. The investigation comprised of a randomized, controlled, 6-week study of 14 overweight sedentary horses and ponies who were blocked for age, gender, and breed (controls n = 7, treatment n = 7). The treatment group were fed a restricted diet (1.4% of body weight dry matter intake) and the control group a maintenance diet (2% of body weight as dry matter intake) over the study period. The treatment group were subjected to a prescribed exercise regime, while the control group were exercised to mimic foraging conditions. Several clinical measurements were taken at the start and end of the study, including morphological parameters, ultrasound measurements of subcutaneous fat, and blood pressure. Fecal microbiota analysis was performed using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, and fecal metabolome was analyzed using NMR spectroscopy, on samples taken at weeks 1, 3, and 6 of the study. All horses completed the study period successfully. However, two of the treatment group had to have modified exercise regimes. The treatment group showed significant weight loss (p < 0.00001) and an associated decrease in waste circumference (p < 0.0001) when compared with the control group. The alpha-diversity of the fecal microbiota in the treatment group showed a significant increase from the start to the end of the study period (p < 0.05); however, there was no significant difference between groups at any sampling point. There were significant changes (p < 0.05) in the metabolome in both groups between the start and end of the study, but not between groups at any sampling point. Finally, the resting blood pressure of all horses was significantly lower by the end of the study.
The anticancer activity of ethanol extract of Chromolaena odorata leaves in 7,12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene in (DMBA) induced breast cancer Wistar rats (Rattus novergicus)
Background: Breast cancer chemotherapy with standard drugs such as doxorubicin will induce cardiotoxicity. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the anticancer activity of C. odorata leaves extract in DMBA induced breast cancer on rats. Methods: Seven groups of Rattus novergicus were used: Four treatment groups of C. odorata extract (500, 1000, 2000, and 4000 mg/kg BW), normal control, breast cancer control, and doxorubicin treatment group. The number, volume, and weight of the nodule and the rats’ body weight were compared among groups. Data was analyzed using paired t-test or one-way ANOVA with post hoc analysis as appropriate. Results: Significant decline of the number, volume, and weight of cancer nodules was observed in the treatment group (p < 0.001). The weight of the cancer nodule at week 16th was also significantly reduced in GCo2000 compared to Gdoxo (p < 0.0001). A significant increase in body weight was also dose-dependent, especially at week 11th (p < 0.05 in all comparisons) and week 16th (p < 0.001 in all comparisons). Conclusion: This study suggested that the ethanol extract of C. odorata leaves has anticancer and antiproliferative activity.
The Effect of Optimized Ultrafiltration on Perioperative Pulmonary Function During Cardiopulmonary Bypass in Infants Under 10 kg
Objective: This study aims to investigate the effect of optimized ultrafiltration on perioperative electrolytes, acid–base balance, and pulmonary function during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in infants with low body weight (under 10 kg), using traditional balanced ultrafiltration and modified ultrafiltration.Methods: A total of 30 children who underwent surgical correction for congenital heart disease in Changzhou Children's Hospital between January 2018 and December 2019 were randomly divided into two groups. In the treatment group, ultrafiltration pre-treatment was carried out with blood-containing priming fluid prior to CPB. Balanced ultrafiltration was performed during the operation, and optimized and modified ultrafiltration were conducted before closing and extubation. In the control group, traditional balanced ultrafiltration was used during the operation, and a modified ultrafiltration combination was used before closing and extubation. Indexes such as blood gas analysis and electrolytes were measured perioperatively, and pulmonary function was observed.Results: No deaths were reported in either group. The ventilator-assisted breathing time was shorter in the treatment group than in the control group (P < 0.05). The indexes of the treatment group were closer than those of the control group to the optimal physiological values. The concentrations of potassium ion (K+), lactate (Lac), and blood glucose (Glu) decreased, and there was significant difference between the two groups (P < 0.05) at the end of CPB. Hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (HCT) in the treatment group increased (P < 0.01). Alveolar-arterial differences for oxygen (A-aDO2) and respiratory index (RI) increased significantly in both groups after operation. Children in the treatment group began to recover lung function earlier than children in the control group. Both A-aDO2 and RI were lower in the treatment group than in the control group at each time point after operation (P < 0.05).Conclusion: Optimizing and modifying the traditional ultrafiltration combination method can effectively shorten the ultrafiltration time, reduce the adverse impacts of the ultrafiltration technique, and improve the lung function of infants after operation.
Regorafenib resistance is a key limiting factor in the treatment of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Increasing evidence has demonstrated that Berberine (BBR) can synergistically enhance the therapeutic effect of various chemotherapeutic agents. However, the contribution of BBR on regorafenib therapy remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to explore the combined treatment effect of berberine and regorafenib in HCC. We found that BBR enhanced the cytotoxicity of regorafenib in HCC cells. Compared with regorafenib alone, the combined treatment of BBR and regorafenib significantly inhibited the proliferation of HCC cells and induced cellular apoptosis. Meanwhile, the combined treatment group with BBR (10mg/kg/day) and regorafenib (5mg/kg/day) had a dramatic inhibitory effect on the growth of HCC xenograft tumors in nude mice. The increased apoptosis of xenograft tumors was seen in the combined treatment group. Moreover, a comprehensive circular RNA sequencing was performed to identify differentially expressed circRNAs in HCC cells after exposure to 100µM BBR and 5µM regorafenib. The volcano plot and scatter plot analyses revealed that there were 58 up-regulated and 19 down-regulated differentially expressed circRNAs between the combination treatment and control groups. Among them, the expression of hsa_circ_0032029 and hsa_circ_0008928 were up-regulated in HCC cells after treatment with 100µM BBR and 5µM regorafenib. Taken together, this study demonstrated that BBR enhanced the anti-HCC effect of regorafenib both in vitro and in vivo. The synergistic anti-tumor effect of BBR and regorafenib might be related to the up-regulation of hsa_circ_0032029 and hsa_circ_0008928 in HCC cells.
Enhanced Ruminal Fermentation Parameters and Altered Rumen Bacterial Community Composition by Formulated Rumen Buffer Agents Fed to Dairy Cows with a High-Concentrate Diet
The effects of rumen buffer agents on ruminal fermentation parameters and bacterial community composition were determined using in vitro and in vivo experiments in three rumen-cannulated, high-concentrate fed Holstein Friesian dairy cows. Experiment 1 in vitro treatments included bentonite, calcium carbonate, calcium oxide, sodium bicarbonate, sodium sesquicarbonate, and processed coral, and unbuffered samples served as the control. Experiment 2 in vitro treatments were based on the formulation of various combinations of the buffer agents used in Experiment 1. Combinations were selected for the in vivo study based on their buffering ability. Calcium oxide, sodium bicarbonate, and sodium sesquicarbonate stabilized the ruminal pH and improved in vitro rumen fermentation. The combined buffer agents had a significant effect on pH, buffering capacity, total gas, and total volatile fatty acids. Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were the dominant phyla in both treatments and the control. Ruminococcus and Prevotella were found to be the dominant genera. Ruminococcus bromii was predominant in the treatment group. Prevotella jejuni was more abundant in the control group compared to the treatment group, in which its abundance was very low. Ruminococcus flavefaciens and Intestinimonas butyriciproducens gradually increased in abundance as cows received treatment. Overall, a high-concentrate diet administered to cows induced adverse changes in ruminal pH; however, buffer supplementation enhanced ruminal fermentation characteristics and altered bacterial community, which could contribute to preventing ruminal acidosis.
The Network Regulation of Yiqi Jiedu Formulae Against Cerebral Ischemia Based on Central-periphery Inflammation System
Abstract Background:Connections between inflammation and gene-network regulation are suggested important in understanding the therapeutic target of stroke and in illuminating underlying mechanism. However, studies on the establishment of network relating with inflammation during stroke process are still in their early stages. Results:Herein, Message RNA chips were used to scan whole genome of stroke-model rats. We selected the inflammation genes from the whole mRNA expression results. And after a series of analysis, we tried to establish a central-peripheral inflammation network on MCAO rice which then be used as disease background network for our further study. As for the background network, we found and verified some key node genes (also named as hub-genes), which are joint in several inflammation and immune related pathways. While mapping genes from treatment group to the background network, we found the promising target genes of Yiqi Jiedu formulae, a traditional chinese prescription used in clinic for stroke, which might give an explanation to the common characteristic about TCM treatment called PK-PD inconsistent. Conclusions:The mRNA network-based analysis provides a foundation for elucidating inflammation-disease associations, a rather promising insight into the inflammation progress during stroke and a novel strategy to reveal the underlying mechanism of TCM.
Effects of drought stress and rehydration on physiological and biochemical of four oak species in China
Abstract Background: Quercus fabri Hance, Quercus serrata Thunb, Quercus acutissima Carruth, and Quercus variabilis BL are four Chinese oak species commonly used for forestation. In recent years, with the global warming caused by the greenhouse effect, seedlings in mountainous areas after afforestation often suffer seasonal drought stress, which seriously affects their survival and growth. In order to ensure the survival of seedlings, we need to select oak species with strong drought resistance. Therefore, we first need to understand the differences in drought resistance of the four oak tree species at the seedling stage, and comprehensively evaluate their drought resistance capabilities by studying the changes in the physiological and biochemical characteristics of the seedlings under continuous drought and rehydration conditions.Methods: The four oak seedlings were divided into drought-rewatering treatment group and normal watering control group. For the seedlings of the drought-rewatering treatment group, drought stress lasting 31 days was used, and then re-watering and recovering for 5 days. The water parameters, osmotic adjustment substance content, antioxidant enzyme activity and photosynthesis parameters of the seedlings in the two groups were measured every 5 days. Principal component analysis, correlation analysis and membership function were used to analyze the physiological and biochemical characteristics of the seedlings of the four oak in two groups.Results and conclusions: Compared with the control group, the relative water content, water potential, net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, and stomatal conductance levels of the four oaks all showed a downward trend under continuous drought stress, and showed an upward trend after rehydration. The soluble protein, soluble sugar, proline, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase content of the four oaks increased first and then decreased under drought stress, and then increased after rehydration. The content of glycine betaine and malondialdehyde continued to increase, and gradually decreased after rehydration. The weight of each index was calculated by PCA, and then the comprehensive evaluation of each index was carried out through the membership function method. The drought resistance levels of the four oak species were as follows: Q. serrata > Q. fabri > Q. variabilis > Q. acutissima.
Sequential everolimus for angiomyolipoma associated with tuberous sclerosis complex: a prospective cohort study
Abstract Background To evaluate the efficacy, safety and health economics of sequential everolimus in treating angiomyolipoma (AML) associated with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). Methods In this prospective cohort study, patients met the inclusion criteria received standard or sequential treatment according to their willingness. All patients received an initial dose of everolimus (10 mg oral, once a day) for 3 months. The standard treatment group maintained 10 mg QD for 12 months, while the sequential treatment group reduced the dose to 5 mg QD from the 4th month. The efficacy, serum everolimus concentration and safety were evaluated at 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after treatment. The primary efficacy endpoint was the proportion of patients with confirmed angiomyolipoma response of at least a 50% reduction in the total volume of target AML relative to baseline. Results Between June 1, 2016 and June 1, 2017, a total of 53 patients were included. Twenty-three patients received standard treatment, 30 patients received sequential treatment. At 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after treatment, the proportion of patients whose total target tumor volume decreased by ≥ 50% from baseline was 39.1% versus 36.7%, 43.5% versus 56.7%, 47.8% versus 50%, 47.8% versus 60% and 47.8% versus 23.3% respectively (P > 0.05 for all). The overall response rate of skin lesions in the two groups was 40.4%, and the response rates of skin lesions at different times were similar for two groups (P > 0.05 for all). Major adverse effects (AEs) included mouth ulceration, hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, menstrual disorders. There was no significant difference between the two groups in the incidence of AEs at 3 months after treatment. The incidence of overall and grade 3/4 AEs at 12 months after treatment were significantly lower in the sequential treatment group. The average direct cost of the two groups in 12 months was $15,466 and $11,120, respectively. Conclusions Compared to standard treatment, sequential treatment was equally effective, with a lower incidence of adverse events and a lower direct cost, suggesting that it may be an alternative treatment for AML associated with TSC.