Magnetic Resonance Imaging
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2021 ◽  
Vol 27 (40) ◽  
pp. 6825-6843
Charles E Hill ◽  
Luca Biasiolli ◽  
Matthew D Robson ◽  
Vicente Grau ◽  
Michael Pavlides

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Jing Wang ◽  
Xiaoping Yi ◽  
Yan Fu ◽  
Peipei Pang ◽  
Huihuang Deng ◽  

PurposeEarly recurrence of glioblastoma after standard treatment makes patient care challenging. This study aimed to assess preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) radiomics for predicting early recurrence of glioblastoma.Patients and MethodsA total of 122 patients (training cohort: n = 86; validation cohort: n = 36) with pathologically confirmed glioblastoma were included in this retrospective study. Preoperative brain MRI images were analyzed for both radiomics and the Visually Accessible Rembrandt Image (VASARI) features of glioblastoma. Models incorporating MRI radiomics, the VASARI parameters, and clinical variables were developed and presented in a nomogram. Performance was assessed based on calibration, discrimination, and clinical usefulness.ResultsThe nomogram consisting of the radiomic signatures, the VASARI parameters, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) values showed good discrimination between the patients with early recurrence and those with later recurrence, with an area under the curve of 0.85 (95% CI, 0.77-0.94) in the training cohort and 0.84 [95% CI, 0.71-0.97] in the validation cohort. Decision curve analysis demonstrated favorable clinical application of the nomogram.ConclusionThis study showed the potential usefulness of preoperative brain MRI radiomics in predicting the early recurrence of glioblastoma, which should be helpful in personalized management of glioblastoma.

eLife ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
Soojung Na ◽  
Dongil Chung ◽  
Andreas Hula ◽  
Ofer Perl ◽  
Jennifer Jung ◽  

The controllability of our social environment has a profound impact on our behavior and mental health. Nevertheless, neurocomputational mechanisms underlying social controllability remain elusive. Here, 48 participants performed a task where their current choices either did (Controllable), or did not (Uncontrollable), influence partners’ future proposals. Computational modeling revealed that people engaged a mental model of forward thinking (FT; i.e., calculating the downstream effects of current actions) to estimate social controllability in both Controllable and Uncontrollable conditions. A large-scale online replication study (n=1342) supported this finding. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (n=48), we further demonstrated that the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) computed the projected total values of current actions during forward planning, supporting the neural realization of the forward-thinking model. These findings demonstrate that humans use vmPFC-dependent FT to estimate and exploit social controllability, expanding the role of this neurocomputational mechanism beyond spatial and cognitive contexts.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Irena Zivkovic

Moving to the ultrahigh field magnetic resonance imaging (UHF MRI) brought many benefits such as potentially higher signal-to-noise ratio, contrast-to-noise ratio, and improved spectral resolution. The UHF MRI regime also introduced some challenges which could prevent full exploitation of mentioned advantages. A higher static magnetic field means increase in Larmor frequency, which further implies the shorter wavelength in a tissue. The shorter wavelength causes interferences of the RF signal and inhomogeneous excitation, which can be partially resolved by the introduction of the multichannel coil arrays. The biggest problem in UHF multichannel densely populated arrays is the existence of the interelement coupling, which should be minimized as much as possible. This article presents the nonconventional, recently developed decoupling techniques used in UHF MRI.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Björn Östenson ◽  
Ellen Ostenfeld ◽  
Anna Werther-Evaldsson ◽  
Anders Roijer ◽  
Zoltan Bakos ◽  

Abstract Background Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) restores ventricular synchrony and induces left ventricular (LV) reverse remodeling in patients with heart failure (HF) and dyssynchrony. However, 30% of treated patients are non-responders despite all efforts. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) can be used to quantify regional contributions to stroke volume (SV) as potential CRT predictors. The aim of this study was to determine if LV longitudinal (SVlong%), lateral (SVlat%), and septal (SVsept%) contributions to SV differ from healthy controls and investigate if these parameters can predict CRT response. Methods Sixty-five patients (19 women, 67 ± 9 years) with symptomatic HF (LVEF ≤ 35%) and broadened QRS (≥ 120 ms) underwent CMR. SVlong% was calculated as the volume encompassed by the atrioventricular plane displacement (AVPD) from end diastole (ED) to end systole (ES) divided by total SV. SVlat%, and SVsept% were calculated as the volume encompassed by radial contraction from ED to ES. Twenty age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers were used as controls. The regional measures were compared to outcome response defined as ≥ 15% decrease in echocardiographic LV end-systolic volume (LVESV) from pre- to 6-months post CRT (delta, Δ). Results AVPD and SVlong% were lower in patients compared to controls (8.3 ± 3.2 mm vs 15.3 ± 1.6 mm, P < 0.001; and 53 ± 18% vs 64 ± 8%, P < 0.01). SVsept% was lower (0 ± 15% vs 10 ± 4%, P < 0.01) with a higher SVlat% in the patient group (42 ± 16% vs 29 ± 7%, P < 0.01). There were no differences between responders and non-responders in neither SVlong% (P = 0.87), SVlat% (P = 0.09), nor SVsept% (P = 0.65). In patients with septal net motion towards the right ventricle (n = 28) ΔLVESV was − 18 ± 22% and with septal net motion towards the LV (n = 37) ΔLVESV was − 19 ± 23% (P = 0.96). Conclusions Longitudinal function, expressed as AVPD and longitudinal contribution to SV, is decreased in patients with HF scheduled for CRT. A larger lateral contribution to SV compensates for the abnormal septal systolic net movement. However, LV reverse remodeling could not be predicted by these regional contributors to SV.

2021 ◽  
Agah Karakuzu ◽  
Stefan Appelhoff ◽  
Tibor Auer ◽  
Mathieu Boudreau ◽  
Franklin Feingold ◽  

The Brain Imaging Data Structure (BIDS) established community consensus on the organization of data and metadata for several neuroimaging modalities. Traditionally, BIDS had a strong focus on functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) datasets and lacked guidance on how to store multimodal structural MRI datasets. Here, we present and describe the BIDS Extension Proposal 001 (BEP001), which adds a range of quantitative MRI (qMRI) applications to the BIDS. In general, the aim of qMRI is to characterize brain microstructure by quantifying the physical MR parameters of the tissue via computational, biophysical models. By proposing this new standard, we envision standardization of qMRI which makes multicenter dissemination of interoperable data possible. As a result, BIDS can act as a catalyst of convergence between qMRI methods development and application-driven neuroimaging studies that can help develop quantitative biomarkers for neural tissue characterization. Finally, our BIDS extension offers a common ground for developers to exchange novel imaging data and tools, reducing the practical barriers to standardization that is currently lacking in the field of neuroimaging.

2021 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Yuna Chen ◽  
Yongsheng Pan ◽  
Shangyu Kang ◽  
Junshen Lu ◽  
Xin Tan ◽  

Diabetes with high blood glucose levels may damage the brain nerves and thus increase the risk of dementia. Previous studies have shown that dementia can be reflected in altered brain structure, facilitating computer-aided diagnosis of brain diseases based on structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)-mediated changes in the brain structures have not yet been studied, and only a few studies have focused on the use of brain MRI for automated diagnosis of T2DM. Hence, identifying MRI biomarkers is essential to evaluate the association between changes in brain structure and T2DM as well as cognitive impairment (CI). The present study aims to investigate four methods to extract features from MRI, characterize imaging biomarkers, as well as identify subjects with T2DM and CI.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-10
Hengxin Qi ◽  
Yuefeng Pan ◽  
Li Chen ◽  
Rui Li ◽  
Chonghua Wang ◽  

Objective. This study aimed to investigate the effects of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) on biological behavior and magnetic resonance imaging and recurrence rate of patients with bladder cancer. Method. Forty-seven postoperative bladder cancer patients treated in our hospital who met the criteria were selected and randomly divided into the TCM treatment group (observation group) and the group without TCM treatment (control group). In the TCM treatment group, the prescription was slightly adjusted according to the different symptoms, and the main prescription remained unchanged. According to the treatment plan, patients continued to undergo bladder irrigation chemotherapy plus TCM treatment, while the control group was only treated with bladder irrigation chemotherapy. The number of patients with recurrence at 3 and 6 months and 1 year, the effects on patients’ clinical symptoms, and quality of life were observed, respectively. The changes in MRI images, blood routine, immune function, and leukocyte level and other related indexes before and after treatment were compared between the two groups. Results. After the patients in the observation group were treated with traditional Chinese medicine, the patients’ quality of life significantly improved. The patients’ CD3+, CD4+, and CD4+/CD8+ indexes were significantly higher than those of the control group. The levels of Hb and PLT of the patients in the observation group were significantly lower than those of the patients in the control group. Patients in the observation group had higher leukocyte levels and a lower recurrence rate than patients in the control group. Conclusion. TCM with chemotherapy drugs can effectively improve patients’ immune function, increase the level of T-lymphocyte subpopulation, and improve bone marrow hematopoietic function, which has a significant effect on the prevention and treatment of bladder cancer recurrence after surgery.

Julia Klau ◽  
Rami Abou Jamra ◽  
Maximilian Radtke ◽  
Henry Oppermann ◽  
Johannes R. Lemke ◽  

AbstractThis single-center study aims to determine the time, diagnostic procedure, and cost saving potential of early exome sequencing in a cohort of 111 individuals with genetically confirmed neurodevelopmental disorders. We retrospectively collected data regarding diagnostic time points and procedures from the individuals’ medical histories and developed criteria for classifying diagnostic procedures in terms of requirement, followed by a cost allocation. All genetic variants were re-evaluated according to ACMG recommendations and considering the individuals’ phenotype. Individuals who developed first symptoms of their underlying genetic disorder when Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) diagnostics were already available received a diagnosis significantly faster than individuals with first symptoms before this cutoff. The largest amount of potentially dispensable diagnostics was found in genetic, metabolic, and cranial magnetic resonance imaging examinations. Out of 407 performed genetic examinations, 296 (72.7%) were classified as potentially dispensable. The same applied to 36 (27.9%) of 129 cranial magnetic resonance imaging and 111 (31.8%) of 349 metabolic examinations. Dispensable genetic examinations accounted 302,947.07€ (90.2%) of the total 335,837.49€ in potentially savable costs in this cohort. The remaining 32,890.42€ (9.8%) are related to non-required metabolic and cranial magnetic resonance imaging diagnostics. On average, the total potentially savable costs in our study amount to €3,025.56 per individual. Cost savings by first tier exome sequencing lie primarily in genetic, metabolic, and cMRI testing in this German cohort, underscoring the utility of performing exome sequencing at the beginning of the diagnostic pathway and the potential for saving diagnostic costs and time.

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