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Toxins ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 62
Author(s):  
Erika N. Biernbaum ◽  
Indira T. Kudva

Foodborne diseases affect an estimated 600 million people worldwide annually, with the majority of these illnesses caused by Norovirus, Vibrio, Listeria, Campylobacter, Salmonella, and Escherichia coli. To elicit infections in humans, bacterial pathogens express a combination of virulence factors and toxins. AB5 toxins are an example of such toxins that can cause various clinical manifestations, including dehydration, diarrhea, kidney damage, hemorrhagic colitis, and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Treatment of most bacterial foodborne illnesses consists of fluid replacement and antibiotics. However, antibiotics are not recommended for infections caused by Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) because of the increased risk of HUS development, although there are conflicting views and results in this regard. Lack of effective treatment strategies for STEC infections pose a public health threat during outbreaks; therefore, the debate on antibiotic use for STEC infections could be further explored, along with investigations into antibiotic alternatives. The overall goal of this review is to provide a succinct summary on the mechanisms of action and the pathogenesis of AB5 and related toxins, as expressed by bacterial foodborne pathogens, with a primary focus on Shiga toxins (Stx). The role of Stx in human STEC disease, detection methodologies, and available treatment options are also briefly discussed.


Author(s):  
Massimo Cugno ◽  
Valentina Capone ◽  
Samantha Griffini ◽  
Elena Grovetti ◽  
Giulia Pintarelli ◽  
...  

2022 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Author(s):  
Larisa Pinte ◽  
Bogdan Marian Sorohan ◽  
Zoltán Prohászka ◽  
Mihaela Gherghiceanu ◽  
Cristian Băicuş

Abstract The evidence regarding thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) related to Coronavirus Infectious Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in patients with complement gene mutations as a cause of acute kidney injury (AKI) are limited. We presented a case of a 23-year-old male patient admitted with an asymptomatic form of COVID-19, but with uncontrolled hypertension and AKI. Kidney biopsy showed severe lesions of TMA. In evolution patient had persistent microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, decreased level of haptoglobin and increased LDH level. Decreased complement C3 level and the presence of schistocytes were found for the first time after biopsy. Kidney function progressively decreased and the patient remained hemodialysis dependent. Complement work-up showed a heterozygous variant with unknown significance in complement factor I (CFI) c.-13G>A, affecting the 5' UTR region of the gene. In addition, the patient was found to be heterozygous for the complement factor H (CFH) H3 haplotype (involving the rare alleles of c.-331C>T, Q672Q and E936D polymorphisms) reported as a risk factor of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome. This case of AKI associated with severe TMA and secondary hemolytic uremic syndrome highlights the importance of genetic risk modifiers in the alternative pathway dysregulation of the complement in the setting of COVID-19, even in asymptomatic forms.


2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 106
Author(s):  
Rim Al Safadi ◽  
Michelle L. Korir ◽  
Shannon D. Manning

Escherichia coli O157:H7 pathogenesis is due to Shiga toxin (Stx) production, though variation in virulence has been observed. Clade 8 strains, for instance, were shown to overproduce Stx and were more common among hemolytic uremic syndrome cases. One candidate gene, norV, which encodes a nitric oxide (NO) reductase found in a clade 8 O157:H7 outbreak strain (TW14359), was thought to impact virulence. Hence, we screened for norV in 303 O157 isolates representing multiple clades, examined stx2 expression following NO exposure in TW14359 for comparison to an isogenic mutant (ΔnorV), and evaluated survival in THP-1 derived macrophages. norV was intact in strains representing clades 6–9, whereas a 204 bp deletion was found in clades 2 and 3. During anaerobic growth, NO induced stx2 expression in TW14359. A similar increase in stx2 expression was observed for the ΔnorV mutant in anaerobiosis, though it was not impaired in its ability to survive within macrophages relative to TW14359. Altogether, these data suggest that NO enhances virulence by inducing Stx2 production in TW14359, and that toxin production is inhibited by NorV encoded by a gene found in most clade 8 strains. The mechanism linked to these responses, however, remains unclear and likely varies across genotypes.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Sarah de Jong ◽  
Anita de Breuk ◽  
Bjorn Bakker ◽  
Suresh Katti ◽  
Carel B. Hoyng ◽  
...  

Complement factor I (FI) is a central inhibitor of the complement system, and impaired FI function increases complement activation, contributing to diseases such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS). Genetic variation in complement factor I (CFI) has been identified in both AMD and aHUS, with more than half of these variants leading to reduced FI secretion levels. For many of the variants with normal FI secretion, however, functional implications are not yet known. Here we studied 11 rare missense variants, with FI secretion levels comparable to wildtype, but a predicted damaging effects based on the Combined Annotation Dependent Depletion (CADD) score. Three variants (p.Pro50Ala, p.Arg339Gln, and p.Ser570Thr) were analyzed in plasma and serum samples of carriers affected by AMD. All 11 variants (nine for the first time in this study) were recombinantly expressed and the ability to degrade C3b was studied with the C3b degradation assay. The amount of degradation was determined by measuring the degradation product iC3b with ELISA. Eight of 11 (73%) mutant proteins (p.Pro50Ala, p.Arg339Gln, p.Ile340Thr, p.Gly342Glu, p.Gly349Arg, p.Arg474Gln, p.Gly487Cys, and p.Gly512Ser) showed significantly impaired C3b degradation, and were therefore classified as likely pathogenic. Our data indicate that genetic variants in CFI with a CADD score >20 are likely to affect FI function, and that monitoring iC3b in a degradation assay is a useful tool to establish the pathogenicity of CFI variants in functional studies.


Cureus ◽  
2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Prashant Ahlawat ◽  
Monica Gupta ◽  
Prateek Upadhyay ◽  
Shivani Gupta ◽  
Amanjot Kaur

Author(s):  
Wiebke Pirschel ◽  
Antonio N. Mestekemper ◽  
Bianka Wissuwa ◽  
Nadine Krieg ◽  
Sarah Kröller ◽  
...  

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