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Toxins ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 62
Erika N. Biernbaum ◽  
Indira T. Kudva

Foodborne diseases affect an estimated 600 million people worldwide annually, with the majority of these illnesses caused by Norovirus, Vibrio, Listeria, Campylobacter, Salmonella, and Escherichia coli. To elicit infections in humans, bacterial pathogens express a combination of virulence factors and toxins. AB5 toxins are an example of such toxins that can cause various clinical manifestations, including dehydration, diarrhea, kidney damage, hemorrhagic colitis, and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Treatment of most bacterial foodborne illnesses consists of fluid replacement and antibiotics. However, antibiotics are not recommended for infections caused by Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) because of the increased risk of HUS development, although there are conflicting views and results in this regard. Lack of effective treatment strategies for STEC infections pose a public health threat during outbreaks; therefore, the debate on antibiotic use for STEC infections could be further explored, along with investigations into antibiotic alternatives. The overall goal of this review is to provide a succinct summary on the mechanisms of action and the pathogenesis of AB5 and related toxins, as expressed by bacterial foodborne pathogens, with a primary focus on Shiga toxins (Stx). The role of Stx in human STEC disease, detection methodologies, and available treatment options are also briefly discussed.

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
Mostafa Izadi ◽  
Hamidreza Seiti ◽  
Mostafa Jafarian

AbstractForesight has recently emerged as one of the most attractive and practical fields of study, while being used to draw up a preferable future and formulate appropriate strategies for achieving predetermined goals. The present research aimed at providing a framework for foresight with a primary focus on the role of a cognitive approach and its combination with the concept of fuzzy cognitive map in the environments of uncertainty and ambiguity. The proposed framework consisted of the 3 phases: pre-foresight, foresight, and post-foresight. The main stage (foresight) focused on the role of imagination and intuition in drawing the future in the experts’ minds and depicting their perceptions above perceptions in the form of a fuzzy cognitive map influenced by variables related to the subject under study in order to determine a preferable future. The use of a Z-number concept and integrating it with fuzzy cognitive maps in the foresight-oriented decision-making space, which was mainly saturated with uncertainty and ambiguity, was one of the main strengths of the proposed framework in the current investigation. The present paper focused primarily on the evolution of expert’s knowledge with regard to the topic of foresight. The role of Z-number in various processes, from data collection to illustration, analysis, and aggregation of cognitive maps, was considered for gaining knowledge and understanding into the nature of future. Moreover, an ultimate objective was realized through identifying, aggregating, and selecting the variables from each expert’s perspective and then the relationship between each variable was determined in the main stage of foresight. Finally, the proposed framework was presented and explicated in the form of a case study, which revealed satisfactory results.

2022 ◽  
Vol 3 ◽  
Luciana Travassos ◽  
Sandra Momm

The paper aims to discuss the sociotechnical transitions regarding urban rivers policy in São Paulo Municipality by focusing on programs and projects conducted since 2000. Accordingly, we use a theoretical reflection on sociotechnical transitions and just transitions in interventions related to water and cities. Our work is based on a documental analysis of programs and projects for urban rivers in the municipality conducted via theoretical discussion. The primary focus is on the current sociotechnical regime, the channeling of streams and construction of road systems on its banks, and disputes and pressures brought by the technological landscape and niches, which lead to the construction of linear parks and leisure areas along with the bodies of water. It also shows how the issue of justice has been losing ground in this transition, which although is “in the making,” already presents many factors of injustice. This is due to the low presence of the theme of precarious settlements, in innovative speeches and practices, and the different treatment given by the programs and projects for rivers in the consolidated middle- and upper-class regions and for those located on the peripheries.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-63
Gilciane Ceolin ◽  
Luciana da Conceição Antunes ◽  
Morgana Moretti ◽  
Débora Kurrle Rieger ◽  
Júlia Dubois Moreira

Abstract Depression is a mental disorder triggered by the interaction of social, psychological, and biological factors that have an important impact on an individual’s life. Despite being a well-studied disease with several established forms of treatment, its prevalence is increasing, especially among older adults. New forms of treatment and prevention are encouraged, and some researchers have been discussing the effects of vitamin D (VitD) on depression; however, the exact mechanism by which VitD exerts its effects is not yet conclusive. In this study, we aimed to discuss the possible mechanisms underlying the association between VitD and depression in older adults. Therefore, we conducted a systematic search of databases for indexed articles published until April 30, 2021. The primary focus was on both observational studies documenting the association between VitD and depression/depressive symptoms, and clinical trials documenting the effects of VitD supplementation on depression/depressive symptoms, especially in older adults. Based on pre-clinical, clinical, and observational studies, it is suggested that the maintenance of adequate VitD concentrations is an important issue, especially in older adults, which are a risk population for both VitD deficiency and depression. Nevertheless, it is necessary to carry out more studies using longitudinal approaches in low- and middle-income countries to develop a strong source of evidence to formulate guidelines and interventions.

Manisha Singh ◽  
Clara Park ◽  
Ellen T. Roche

Mechanical or biological aortic valves are incorporated in physical cardiac simulators for surgical training, educational purposes, and device testing. They suffer from limitations including either a lack of anatomical and biomechanical accuracy or a short lifespan, hence limiting the authentic hands-on learning experience. Medical schools utilize hearts from human cadavers for teaching and research, but these formaldehyde-fixed aortic valves contort and stiffen relative to native valves. Here, we compare a panel of different chemical treatment methods on explanted porcine aortic valves and evaluate the microscopic and macroscopic features of each treatment with a primary focus on mechanical function. A surfactant-based decellularization method after formaldehyde fixation is shown to have mechanical properties close to those of the native aortic valve. Valves treated in this method were integrated into a custom-built left heart cardiac simulator to test their hemodynamic performance. This decellularization, post-fixation technique produced aortic valves which have ultimate stress and elastic modulus in the range of the native leaflets. Decellularization of fixed valves reduced the valvular regurgitation by 60% compared to formaldehyde-fixed valves. This fixation method has implications for scenarios where the dynamic function of preserved valves is required, such as in surgical trainers or device test rigs.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 551
Jakub Swacha

Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) play a double role in the strife for sustainable development goals, as both an enabler of green solutions and a cause of excessive consumption. While the primary focus of sustainability-related research is on the hardware aspect of ICT, its software aspect also deserves attention. In order for the notion of green and sustainable software to become widespread among practitioners, models are needed, both to be used as a reference on how to develop sustainable software, and to check whether given software or its development process is sustainable. In this paper, we present the results of a scoping review of literature on sustainable software models, based on 41 works extracted from an initial set of 178 query results from four bibliographic data providers. The relevant literature is mapped using five categories (model scope, purpose, covered sustainability aspects, verification or validation, and the economic category of the country of research), allowing us to identify recent trends and research gaps, which can be addressed in future work.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 34
Katrina Carbonara ◽  
Adam J. MacNeil ◽  
Deborah D. O’Leary ◽  
Jens R. Coorssen

The “best of both worlds” is not often the case when it comes to implementing new health models, particularly in community settings. It is often a struggle between choosing or balancing between two components: depth of research or financial profit. This has become even more apparent with the recent shift to move away from a traditionally reactive model of medicine toward a predictive/preventative one. This has given rise to many new concepts and approaches with a variety of often overlapping aims. The purpose of this perspective is to highlight the pros and cons of the numerous ventures already implementing new concepts, to varying degrees, in community settings of quite differing scales—some successful and some falling short. Scientific wellness is a complex, multifaceted concept that requires integrated experimental/analytical designs that demand both high-quality research/healthcare and significant funding. We currently see the more likely long-term success of those ventures in which any profit is largely reinvested into research efforts and health/healthspan is the primary focus.

Abira Chaudhuri ◽  
Koushik Halder ◽  
Asis Datta

AbstractRemarkable diversity in the domain of genome loci architecture, structure of effector complex, array of protein composition, mechanisms of adaptation along with difference in pre-crRNA processing and interference have led to a vast scope of detailed classification in bacterial and archaeal CRISPR/Cas systems, their intrinsic weapon of adaptive immunity. Two classes: Class 1 and Class 2, several types and subtypes have been identified so far. While the evolution of the effector complexes of Class 2 is assigned solely to mobile genetic elements, the origin of Class 1 effector molecules is still in a haze. Majority of the types target DNA except type VI, which have been found to target RNA exclusively. Cas9, the single effector protein, has been the primary focus of CRISPR-mediated genome editing revolution and is an integral part of Class 2 (type II) system. The present review focuses on the different CRISPR types in depth and the application of CRISPR/Cas9 for epigenome modification, targeted base editing and improving traits such as abiotic and biotic stress tolerance, yield and nutritional aspects of tomato breeding.

2022 ◽  
pp. 45-58
Susan E. Zinner

This chapter considers how the U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child, adopted by the U.N. General Assembly in 1989 and ratified by every nation except the United States, protects the present and future rights of all children. However, the digital rights of children could not have been anticipated when the treaty was drafted. How should parents, legislators, child advocates, and others strive to both protect children from potential internet harm while still allowing children to develop the requisite skills needed to negotiate the internet alone? How best to achieve the balance between protection and digital participation will be the primary focus of this chapter.

2022 ◽  
pp. 805-825
Justin M. Smith ◽  
Elizabeth A. Bradshaw

The purpose of this chapter is to demonstrate the pedagogical and practical importance of learning skills around political advocacy and community engagement in prison-based classes. The primary focus of the exercises described here is upon engaging students in exercises that develop their skills in advocating for social policies that affect them directly. Learning objectives include understanding the challenges of community organizing and consensus-building, developing policy proposal- and grant-writing skills, and developing skills around public messaging.

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