foodborne pathogens
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Toxins ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 62
Erika N. Biernbaum ◽  
Indira T. Kudva

Foodborne diseases affect an estimated 600 million people worldwide annually, with the majority of these illnesses caused by Norovirus, Vibrio, Listeria, Campylobacter, Salmonella, and Escherichia coli. To elicit infections in humans, bacterial pathogens express a combination of virulence factors and toxins. AB5 toxins are an example of such toxins that can cause various clinical manifestations, including dehydration, diarrhea, kidney damage, hemorrhagic colitis, and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Treatment of most bacterial foodborne illnesses consists of fluid replacement and antibiotics. However, antibiotics are not recommended for infections caused by Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) because of the increased risk of HUS development, although there are conflicting views and results in this regard. Lack of effective treatment strategies for STEC infections pose a public health threat during outbreaks; therefore, the debate on antibiotic use for STEC infections could be further explored, along with investigations into antibiotic alternatives. The overall goal of this review is to provide a succinct summary on the mechanisms of action and the pathogenesis of AB5 and related toxins, as expressed by bacterial foodborne pathogens, with a primary focus on Shiga toxins (Stx). The role of Stx in human STEC disease, detection methodologies, and available treatment options are also briefly discussed.

2022 ◽  
Filipe Magnum Silva Dos Santos ◽  
Kah Hin Low ◽  
Lay Ching Chai

Abstract Bacteria emits a multitude of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the headspace as a mean of interactions with the environments, as well as intra- and interkingdom communication for survival and persistence in the nature and within their hosts. Campylobacter, which is often found in poultry and ruminants, has shown great persistence in aquatic environments, making it one of the world's most dangerous foodborne pathogens, killing thousands of people annually. In this study, the VOCs emitted by both thermophilic (C. jejuni, C. coli and C. lari) and non-thermophilic Campylobacter (C. fetus) of clinical concerns, impacted by nutrients composition (media) and growth phase were identified. Most thermophilic Campylobacter were shown to release volatile alcohols and ketones (1s,4R,7R,11R-1,3,4,7-Tetramethyltricyclo [,11)] undec-2-en-8-one and Isophorone) during early stationary and stationary phases using active sampling with active charcoal adsorbent and GC-MS analysis. C. jejuni cultured in the Brain Heart Infusion had 1-Heptadecanol in its headspace gas, but not in Bolton Broth. The non-thermophilic C. fetus did not produce alcohols or ketones, but rather a variety of unidentified chemicals that will require further investigation in the future. Overall, PCA analysis revealed that the five Campylobacter strains studied created distinct volatilomes, allowing for future Campylobacter identification based on VOCs.

Youming Shen ◽  
Jianyi Zhang ◽  
Jiyun Nie ◽  
Hui Zhang ◽  
Syed Asim Shah Bacha

Abstract Microbes on fresh apples are closely associated with fruit disease, preservation and quality control. Investigation into the microbial communities on apples from different producing regions could reveal the microbial specificity and help disease prevention and quality control. In this paper, the apple surface microbes of forty-four samples from two main Chinese apple-producing regions, Bohai Bay (BHB) and the Loess Plateau (LP), were investigated by sequencing fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and bacterial 16S rRNA hypervariable sequences. BHB and LP apples contained significantly different bacterial and fungal communities. BHB apples had a higher fungal diversity than LP apples. A total of 102 different fungal and bacterial taxonomies were obtained between apples from the two regions, in which 24 genera were predominant. BHB apples had higher phytopathogenic fungal genera, such as Tilletiopsis, Acremonium, Candida and Phoma, indicating the higher phytopathogenic risks of apples from the humid climate of the BHB region. LP apples contained more bacterial genera identified as gut microbes, indicating the potential risks of contaminating apples with foodborne pathogens in the arid environment of the LP. This study highlighted the environment-oriented microbial specificity on apples from two main apple-producing regions, and provided a basis for further investigation.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Babak Pakbin ◽  
Afshin Akhondzadeh Basti ◽  
Ali Khanjari ◽  
Wolfram Manuel Brück ◽  
Leila Azimi ◽  

AbstractShigella species, a group of intracellular foodborne pathogens, are the main causes of bacillary dysentery and shigellosis in humans worldwide. It is essential to determine the species of Shigella in outbreaks and food safety surveillance systems. The available immunological and molecular methods for identifying Shigella species are relatively complicated, expensive and time-consuming. High resolution melting (HRM) assay is a rapid, cost-effective, and easy to perform PCR-based method that has recently been used for the differentiation of bacterial species. In this study, we designed and developed a PCR-HRM assay targeting rrsA gene to distinguish four species of 49 Shigella isolates from clinical and food samples and evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of the assay. The assay demonstrated a good analytical sensitivity with 0.01–0.1 ng of input DNA template and an analytical specificity of 100% to differentiate the Shigella species. The PCR-HRM assay also was able to identify the species of all 49 Shigella isolates from clinical and food samples correctly. Consequently, this rapid and user-friendly method demonstrated good sensitivity and specificity to differentiate species of the Shigella isolates from naturally contaminated samples and has the potential to be implemented in public health and food safety surveillance systems.

Hany Mohamed YEHIA ◽  
Manal Fawzy ELKHADRAGY ◽  
Rania Ibrahim SHEBL ◽  
Abdulrahman Hamad Al-MASOUD ◽  
Mohamed Ferkry Serag EL-DIN

Foods ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 154
Qinya Niu ◽  
Xiumin Su ◽  
Luxin Lian ◽  
Jinling Huang ◽  
Shutong Xue ◽  

The aim of this study was to develop homogeneous and stable plasmid DNA reference materials for detecting the mechanisms of resistance to quinolones and fluoroquinolones in foodborne pathogens. The DNA fragments of 11 target genes associated with quinolone and fluoroquinolone resistance were artificially synthesized, inserted into plasmid vectors, and transferred into recipient cells. PCR and sequencing of DNA were performed to assess the genetic stability of the target DNA in recombinant Escherichia coli DH5α cells during subculturing for 15 generations. The limit of detection (LOD) of the target DNA was determined using PCR and real-time qualitative PCR (qPCR). The homogeneity and storage stability of plasmid DNA reference materials were evaluated in terms of plasmid DNA quantity, PCR-measured gene expression, and qPCR threshold cycle. All 11 target DNAs were successfully synthesized and inserted into vectors to obtain recombinant plasmids. No nucleotide mutations were identified in the target DNA being stably inherited and detectable in the corresponding plasmids during subculturing of recombinant strains. When the target DNA was assessed using PCR and qPCR, the LOD was ≤1.77 × 105 and 3.26 × 104 copies/μL, respectively. Further, when the reference materials were stored at 37 °C for 13 days, 4 °C for 90 days, and −20 °C for 300 days, each target DNA was detectable by PCR, and no mutations were found. Although the threshold cycle values of qPCR varied with storage time, they were above the LOD, and no significant differences were found in the quantity of each plasmid DNA at different timepoints. Further, the homogeneity and stability of the materials were highly consistent with the requirements of standard reference materials. To summarize, considering that our plasmid DNA reference materials conformed to standard requirements, they can be used to detect the mechanisms of quinolone and fluoroquinolone resistance in foodborne pathogens.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Elena G. Olson ◽  
Andrew C. Micciche ◽  
Michael J. Rothrock ◽  
Yichao Yang ◽  
Steven C. Ricke

Campylobacter is a major foodborne pathogen with over a million United States cases a year and is typically acquired through the consumption of poultry products. The common occurrence of Campylobacter as a member of the poultry gastrointestinal tract microbial community remains a challenge for optimizing intervention strategies. Simultaneously, increasing demand for antibiotic-free products has led to the development of several alternative control measures both at the farm and in processing operations. Bacteriophages administered to reduce foodborne pathogens are one of the alternatives that have received renewed interest. Campylobacter phages have been isolated from both conventionally and organically raised poultry. Isolated and cultivated Campylobacter bacteriophages have been used as an intervention in live birds to target colonized Campylobacter in the gastrointestinal tract. Application of Campylobacter phages to poultry carcasses has also been explored as a strategy to reduce Campylobacter levels during poultry processing. This review will focus on the biology and ecology of Campylobacter bacteriophages in poultry production followed by discussion on current and potential applications as an intervention strategy to reduce Campylobacter occurrence in poultry production.

Toxins ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 40
Valeria Russini ◽  
Carlo Corradini ◽  
Maria Laura De Marchis ◽  
Tatiana Bogdanova ◽  
Sarah Lovari ◽  

Foodborne diseases (FBDs) represent a worldwide public health issue, given their spreadability and the difficulty of tracing the sources of contamination. This report summarises the incidence of foodborne pathogens and toxins found in food, environmental and clinical samples collected in relation to diagnosed or suspected FBD cases and submitted between 2018 and 2020 to the Food Microbiology Unit of the Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale del Lazio e della Toscana (IZSLT). Data collected from 70 FBD investigations were analysed: 24.3% of them started with an FBD diagnosis, whereas a further 41.4% involved clinical diagnoses based on general symptomatology. In total, 5.6% of the 340 food samples analysed were positive for the presence of a bacterial pathogen, its toxins or both. Among the positive samples, more than half involved meat-derived products. Our data reveal the probable impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the number of FBD investigations conducted. In spite of the serious impact of FBDs on human health and the economy, the investigation of many foodborne outbreaks fails to identify the source of infection. This indicates a need for the competent authorities to continue to develop and implement a more fully integrated health network.

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