Lung Cancer
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2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (11) ◽  
pp. 3569-3573
James Yuheng Jiang ◽  
Marco Lee ◽  
Christine Kang ◽  
Veronica Chi Ken Wong ◽  
Robert Mansberg

Ardeshir Moayeri ◽  
Shahram Mohammadpour ◽  
Naser abbasi ◽  
Ali Aidy ◽  
Elahe Karimi ◽  

IntroductionAlternative medicine is important in cancer treatment. The apoptotic effect of Thymol and extracted Thymol from Thymbra spicata on non-small-cells lung cancer was studied.Material and methodsThymol was evaluated in Thymbra spicata extract by HPCL. Cell viability was assessed by MTT method. DCF and flu3-AM probe was used for ROS and cai2+ analysis, respectively. Western blotting was performed to measure NOX2 and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio.ResultsObtained data showed that Thymol was 1.51 mg/g in Thymbra spicata extract. Treatment with Thymol and extracted Thymol from Thymbra spicata resulted in cell death at high concentrations [LC50= 111±4.5 and 119±5.2 μM, respectively]. Subsequently, Thymbra spicata extract and its bioactive component increased ROS and Cai2+ production, NOX2, and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio.ConclusionsThis study revealed the anticancer effects of Thymol and Thymbra spicata extract on non-small-cells lung cancer and at least part of that effect was related to the increase in the NOX2 and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. Our results demonstrated that TSE and Thymol at high concentrations (180, 120, and 80 μM) decreased the growth of A549 cells. It appeared that cytotoxic activity was exerted through activation of NOX2, ROS generation, increase in Cai2+, and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. Present results demonstrated that TSE and thymol may be potential therapeutic agents for human lung cancer.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Liang Wei ◽  
Guangxue Wang ◽  
Cheng Yang ◽  
Yanfei Zhang ◽  
Yiming Chen ◽  

Abstract Background This study aimed to explore the potential regulatory mechanisms of brain metastasis and to identify novel underlying targets of lung cancer with brain metastasis. Methods Exosomes were isolated from the plasma of lung cancer patients with or without brain metastasis and low or high metastatic lung cancer cells, and small RNA from plasma-derived exosomes were sequenced. Differentially expressed miRNAs (DE-miRNAs) were identified. Human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs) were transfected with miR-550a-3-5p mimics or inhibitors and exosomes. Cell viability, migration, and apoptosis/cycle were determined using Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8), Transwell, and flow cytometry, respectively. Western blotting was used to measure the expression of the associated proteins. Finally, a dual-luciferase reporter gene assay was performed to confirm the miR-550a-3-5p target. Results Transmission electron microscopy, NanoSight, and western blotting showed that exosomes were successfully isolated and cell-derived exosomes could be taken up by HBMECs. Sequencing identified 22 DE-miRNAs which were enriched in the MAPK, chemokine, PPAR, and Wnt signaling pathways. MiR-550a-3-5p was significantly enriched in brain metastatic exosomes. Cellular experiments showed that miR-550a-3-5p and exosome enrichment significantly inhibited cell viability and migration, promoted apoptosis, and regulated the cell cycle of HBMECs compared with the controls (P  <  0.05). Compared with the controls, high levels of both miR-550a-3-5p and exosomes markedly upregulated cleaved-PARP expression, but downregulated the expression of pRB, CDK6, YAP1, CTGF, and CYR61 (P  <  0.05). Finally, YAP1 was confirmed to bind directly to miR-550a-3-5p. Conclusion Our results indicate that miR-550a-3-5p and YAP1 may be novel potential targets for controlling brain metastasis.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1333-1339
Justin J. Kuhlman ◽  
Quinn J. Frier ◽  
Daniel Sumarriva ◽  
Matthew Oberley ◽  
Danielle Bolton ◽  

VHL is a tumor suppressor gene located on chromosome 3 that is classically associated with tumors of the eye and CNS, renal cell carcinoma, and pheochromocytoma. We describe what appears to be the first report of an association between a germline VHL mutation and non-small cell lung cancer and metachronous hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Our case involves a 63-year-old nonsmoking male who was initially diagnosed with EGFR mutation-positive metastatic nonsquamous, non-small cell lung adenocarcinoma, who subsequently developed HCC and squamous cell carcinoma of the femur despite first-line treatment with EGFR-blocking osimertinib. Caris molecular profiling unexpectedly identified a shared underlying VHL mutation in all 3 lesions. Genetic mapping through a machine learning-based tool called Genomic Prevalence Score (GPSai<sup>™</sup>) helped determine that the femur tumor was a metastatic lesion as opposed to a separate primary and that the HCC was a distinct primary malignancy. We not only highlight the association between these tumors and a VHL mutation but also emphasize the value of next-generation sequencing and a molecular disease classifier in a patient with multiple primaries, how it helps guide therapy, and its value in guiding future studies.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Fu-Zong Wu ◽  
Pei-Lun Kuo ◽  
Yi-Luan Huang ◽  
En-Kuei Tang ◽  
Chi-Shen Chen ◽  

BMC Cancer ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Xinghao Ai ◽  
Zhengbo Song ◽  
Hong Jian ◽  
Zhen Zhou ◽  
Zhiwei Chen ◽  

Abstract Background Standard therapy for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-mutant non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is lacking. The clinical benefits with pan-HER inhibitors (afatinib, neratinib, and dacomitinib), anti-HER2 antibody drug conjugate (ADC) trastuzumab emtansine, and an emerging irreversible tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) poziotinib were modest. Another new ADC trastuzumab deruxtecan showed encouraging outcomes, but only phase I study was completed. Pyrotinib, another emerging irreversible epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)/HER2 dual TKI, has been approved in HER2-positive breast cancer in 2018 in China. It has shown promising antitumor activity against HER2-mutant NSCLC in phase II trials, but pyrotinib-related diarrhea remains an issue. The antiangiogenic and immunomodulatory drug thalidomide is a cereblon-based molecular glue that can induce the degradation of the IKAROS family transcription factors IKZF1 and IKZF3. The use of thalidomide can also decrease gastrointestinal toxicity induced by anti-cancer therapy. Methods This is an open-label, single-arm phase II trial. A total of 39 advanced NSCLC patients with HER2 exon 20 insertions and ≤ 2 lines of prior chemotherapy will be recruited, including treatment-naïve patients who refuse chemotherapy. Patients are allowed to have prior therapy with immune checkpoint inhibitors and/or antiangiogenic agents. Those who have prior HER2-targeting therapy or other gene alterations with available targeted drugs are excluded. Eligible patients will receive oral pyrotinib 400 mg once daily and oral thalidomide 200 mg once daily until disease progression or intolerable toxicity. The primary endpoint is objective response rate. Discussion The addition of thalidomide to pyrotinib is expected to increase the clinical benefit in advanced NSCLC patients with HER2 exon 20 insertions, and reduce the incidence of pyrotinib-related diarrhea. We believe thalidomide is the stone that can hit two birds. Trial registration Identifier: NCT04382300. Registered on May 11, 2020.

2021 ◽  
Shuxin Li ◽  
Jianyi Lv ◽  
Xing Zhang ◽  
Zhihui Li ◽  
Xueyun Huo ◽  

Abstract Background: Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is one of the most malignant tumors with poor prognosis. RNA-binding protein (RBP) human antigen D (HuD) has been indicated in the process of tumorigenesis and progression of lung tumors, as well as long noncoding RNAs (lncRNA). However, the role of HuD and lncRNA in SCLC remains unknown. Methods: Realtime PCR were used to examine the circulating levels of LYPLAL1-DT in the 46 SCLC patients and 18 normal controls. Assays of dual- luciferase reporter system, RNA pull-down were performed to determine that LYPLAL1-DT could sponge miR-204-5p to upregulate the expression of PFN2. Migration and invasion assay, CCK8 and colony formation assay were used to detect the malignant effect of HuD and LYPLAL1-DT. Tumor xenograft model was established and IHC assay was performed to determine how HuD and LAPLAL1-DT impact in vivo. Results: We revealed that HuD was highly expressed in SCLC tissues and cell lines. HuD boosts the proliferation, migration, invasion of SCLC cells by increasing the PFN2 mRNA stability, which promotes cytoskeleton formation. HuD also enhanced the stability of lncRNA LYPLAL1-DT, which expressed highly in the serum of patients with SCLC and acted as an oncogenic lncRNA in SCLC cells as confirmed in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, LYPLAL1-DT functioned as a competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) for sponging miR-204-5p, leading to the upregulation of its target PFN2 to promote SCLC cell proliferation and invasion. In summary, our data reveal a regulatory pathway in which HuD stabilizes PFN2 mRNA and LYPLAL1-DT, which in turn increases PFN2 expression by binding to miR-204-5p, and ultimately promotes tumorigenesis and invasion in SCLC.Conclusions: Our findings reveal novel regulatory axes involving HuD/PFN2 and lncRNA LYPLAL1-DT/miR-204-5p/PFN2 in the development and progression of small cell lung cancer (SCLC), providing novel prognostic indicators and promising therapeutic targets.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Yi-Xin Chen ◽  
Juan Chen ◽  
Ji-Ye Yin ◽  
Hong-Hao Zhou ◽  
Bai-Mei He ◽  

Purpose: Lung cancer is the largest cause of cancer deaths in the world. Platinum-based chemotherapy is a foundation of first-line chemotherapy. However, the prognosis of lung cancer treated with platinum-based chemotherapy is still a challenge. Single nucleotide polymorphism of non-coding RNA has the potential to be a biomarker, but its effectiveness has yet to be comprehensively assessed. In this study, we explored the association between polymorphisms of non-coding RNA and prognosis of lung cancer patients receiving platinum-based chemotherapy.Materials and Methods: For 446 lung cancer patients receiving platinum-based chemotherapy, 22 single nucleotide polymorphisms of microRNA and long noncoding RNA were genotyped by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Cox regression analysis, Kaplan-Meier method, and long-rank test have been performed to assess the association of overall and progression-free survival with polymorphisms.Results: In the additive and dominant models, genetic polymorphism of ANRIL rs1333049 (G &gt; C) was significantly associated with progression-free survival. Additive model: CC vs GC vs GG [HR = 0.84, p = 0.021, 95% CI (0.73–0.97)]; Recessive model: CC vs GG + GC [HR = 0.77, p = 0.026, 95% CI (0.61–0.97)]. In the dominant model, compared with the CC genotype patients, lower risk of death [HR = 0.81, p = 0.036, 95% CI (0.66–0.99)] and lower risk of progression [HR = 0.81, p = 0.040, 95% CI (0.67–0.99)] have been observed on the patients with CG or GG genotype in miR-146A rs2910164.Conclusion: Our research demonstrated the potential of using ANRIL rs1333049 (G &gt; C) and miR-146A rs2910164 (C &gt; G) as biomarkers to support the prediction of a better prognosis for lung cancer patients receiving platinum-based chemotherapy.

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