disease progression
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2022 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Anna V. Milton ◽  
David B. Konrad

Abstract Mutation-selective drugs constitute a great advancement in personalized anticancer treatment with increased quality of life and overall survival in cancers. However, the high adaptability and evasiveness of cancers can lead to disease progression and the development of drug resistance, which cause recurrence and metastasis. A common characteristic in advanced neoplastic cancers is the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) which is strongly interconnected with H2O2 signaling, increased motility and invasiveness. H2O2 relays its signal through the installation of oxidative posttranslational modifications on cysteines. The increased H2O2 levels that are associated with an EMT confer a heightened sensitivity towards the induction of ferroptosis as a recently discovered vulnerability.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Ramana Vaka ◽  
Saad Khan ◽  
Bin Ye ◽  
Yousef Risha ◽  
Sandrine Parent ◽  

Abstract Background Although 90% of infections with the novel coronavirus 2 (COVID-19) are mild, many patients progress to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) which carries a high risk of mortality. Given that this dysregulated immune response plays a key role in the pathology of COVID-19, several clinical trials are underway to evaluate the effect of immunomodulatory cell therapy on disease progression. However, little is known about the effect of ARDS associated pro-inflammatory mediators on transplanted stem cell function and survival, and any deleterious effects could undermine therapeutic efficacy. As such, we assessed the impact of inflammatory cytokines on the viability, and paracrine profile (extracellular vesicles) of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells, heart-derived cells, and umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stromal cells. Methods All cell products were manufactured and characterized to established clinical release standards by an accredited clinical cell manufacturing facility. Cytokines and Extracellular vesicles in the cell conditioned media were profiled using proteomic array and nanoparticle tracking analysis. Using a survey of the clinical literature, 6 cytotoxic cytokines implicated in the progression of COVID-19 ARDS. Flow cytometry was employed to determine receptor expression of these 6 cytokines in three cell products. Based on clinical survey and flow cytometry data, a cytokine cocktail that mimics cytokine storm seen in COVID-19 ARDS patients was designed and the impact on cytokine cocktail on viability and paracrine secretory ability of cell products were assessed using cell viability and nanoparticle tracking analysis. Results Flow cytometry revealed the presence of receptors for all cytokines but IL-6, which was subsequently excluded from further experimentation. Despite this widespread expression, exposure of each cell type to individual cytokines at doses tenfold greater than observed clinically or in combination at doses associated with severe ARDS did not alter cell viability or extracellular vesicle character/production in any of the 3 cell products. Conclusions The paracrine production and viability of the three leading cell products under clinical evaluation for the treatment of severe COVID-19 ARDS are not altered by inflammatory mediators implicated in disease progression.

2022 ◽  
Thom T. J. Veeger ◽  
Nienke M. Velde ◽  
Kevin R. Keene ◽  
Erik H. Niks ◽  
Melissa T. Hooijmans ◽  

Biomedicines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 169
Jung Eun Park ◽  
Tamil Iniyan Gunasekaran ◽  
Yeong Hee Cho ◽  
Seong-Min Choi ◽  
Min-Kyung Song ◽  

Potential biomarkers for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) include amyloid β1–42 (Aβ1–42), t-Tau, p-Tau181, neurofilament light chain (NFL), and neuroimaging biomarkers. Their combined use is useful for diagnosing and monitoring the progress of AD. Therefore, further development of a combination of these biomarkers is essential. We investigated whether plasma NFL/Aβ1–42 can serve as a plasma-based primary screening biomarker reflecting brain neurodegeneration and amyloid pathology in AD for monitoring disease progression and early diagnosis. We measured the NFL and Aβ1–42 concentrations in the CSF and plasma samples and performed correlation analysis to evaluate the utility of these biomarkers in the early diagnosis and monitoring of AD spectrum disease progression. Pearson’s correlation analysis was used to analyse the associations between the fluid biomarkers and neuroimaging data. The study included 136 participants, classified into five groups: 28 cognitively normal individuals, 23 patients with preclinical AD, 22 amyloid-negative patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment, 32 patients with prodromal AD, and 31 patients with AD dementia. With disease progression, the NFL concentrations increased and Aβ1–42 concentrations decreased. The plasma and CSF NFL/Aβ1–42 were strongly correlated (r = 0.558). Plasma NFL/Aβ1–42 was strongly correlated with hippocampal volume/intracranial volume (r = 0.409). In early AD, plasma NFL/Aβ1–42 was associated with higher diagnostic accuracy than the individual biomarkers. Moreover, in preclinical AD, plasma NFL/Aβ1–42 changed more rapidly than the CSF t-Tau or p-Tau181 concentrations. Our findings highlight the utility of plasma NFL/Aβ1–42 as a non-invasive plasma-based biomarker for early diagnosis and monitoring of AD spectrum disease progression.

2022 ◽  
pp. 00583-2021
Christoffer Stark ◽  
Juha W. Koskenvuo ◽  
Antti Nykänen ◽  
Eija H. Seppälä ◽  
Samuel Myllykangas ◽  

Question addressed by the studyThe prevalence of monogenic disease-causing gene variants in lung-transplant recipients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is not fully known. Their impact on clinical outcomes before and after transplantation requires more evidence.Patients and MethodsWe retrospectively performed sequence analysis of genes associated with pulmonary fibrosis in a cohort of 23 patients with histologically confirmed usual interstitial pneumonia that had previously undergone double lung transplantation. We evaluated the impact of confirmed molecular diagnoses on disease progression, clinical outcomes and incidence of acute rejection or chronic lung allograft dysfunction after transplantation.ResultsFifteen patients out of 23 (65%) had a variant in a gene associated with interstitial lung disease. Eleven patients (48%) received a molecular diagnosis, of which nine involved genes for telomerase function. Five diagnostic variants were found in the gene for Telomerase reverse transcriptase. Two of these variants, p.(Asp684Gly) and p.(Arg774*), seemed to be enriched in Finnish lung-transplant recipients. Disease progression and the incidence of acute rejection and chronic lung allograft dysfunction was similar between patients with telomere-related disease and the rest of the study population. The incidence of renal or bone marrow insufficiency or skin malignancies did not differ between the groups.Answer to the questionGenetic variants are common in lung transplant recipients with pulmonary fibrosis and are most often related to telomerase function. A molecular diagnosis for telomeropathy does not seem to impact disease progression or the risk of complications or allograft dysfunction after transplantation.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Chia-Chang Wu ◽  
Yuan-Hung Wang ◽  
Su-Wei Hu ◽  
Wen-Ling Wu ◽  
Chi-Tai Yeh ◽  

BackgroundDysfunctional transcription machinery with associated dysregulated transcription characterizes many malignancies. Components of the mediator complex, a principal modulator of transcription, are increasingly implicated in cancer. The mediator complex subunit 10 (MED10), a vital kinase module of the mediator, plays a critical role in bladder physiology and pathology. However, its role in the oncogenicity, metastasis, and disease recurrence in bladder cancer (BLCA) remains unclear.ObjectiveThus, we investigated the role of dysregulated or aberrantly expressed MED10 in the enhanced onco-aggression, disease progression, and recurrence of bladder urothelial carcinoma (UC), as well as the underlying molecular mechanism.MethodsUsing an array of multi-omics big data analyses of clinicopathological data, in vitro expression profiling and functional assays, and immunocytochemical staining, we assessed the probable roles of MED10 in the progression and prognosis of BLCA/UC.ResultsOur bioinformatics-aided gene expression profiling showed that MED10 is aberrantly expressed in patients with BLCA, is associated with high-grade disease, is positively correlated with tumor stage, and confers significant survival disadvantage. Reanalyzing the TCGA BLCA cohort (n = 454), we showed that aberrantly expressed MED10 expression is associated with metastatic and recurrent disease, disease progression, immune suppression, and therapy failure. Interestingly, we demonstrated that MED10 interacts with and is co-expressed with the microRNA, hsa-miR-590, and that CRISPR-mediated knockout of MED10 elicits the downregulation of miR-590 preferentially in metastatic UC cells, compared to their primary tumor peers. More so, silencing MED10 in SW1738 and JMSU1 UC cell lines significantly attenuates their cell proliferation, migration, invasion, clonogenicity, and tumorsphere formation (primary and secondary), with the associated downregulation of BCL-xL, MKI67, VIM, SNAI1, OCT4, and LIN28A but upregulated BAX protein expression. In addition, we showed that high MED10 expression is a non-inferior biomarker of urothelial recurrence compared with markers of cancer stemness; however, MED10 is a better biomarker of local recurrence than any of the stemness markers.ConclusionThese data provide preclinical evidence that dysregulated MED10/MIR590 signaling drives onco-aggression, disease progression, and recurrence of bladder UC and that this oncogenic signal is therapeutically actionable for repressing the metastatic/recurrent phenotypes, enhancing therapy response, and shutting down stemness-driven disease progression and relapse in patients with BLCA/UC.

2022 ◽  
Adela M Francis-Malave ◽  
Santiago Martinez Gonzalez ◽  
Caren Pichardo ◽  
Torri D Wilson ◽  
Luis G Rivera ◽  

Previous studies have reported sex differences in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients, including differences in visceral pain perception. Despite this, sex differences in behavioral manifestations of visceral pain and underlying pathology of the gastrointestinal tract have been largely understudied in preclinical research. In this study, we evaluated potential sex differences in spontaneous visceral nociceptive responses, referred abdominal hypersensitivity, disease progression and bowel pathology in mouse models of acute and persistent colon inflammation. Our experiments show that females exhibit more visceral nociceptive responses and referred abdominal hypersensitivity than males in the context of acute but not persistent colon inflammation. We further demonstrate that, following acute and persistent colon inflammation, visceral pain-related behavioral responses in females and males are distinct, with increases in licking of the abdomen only observed in females and increases in abdominal contractions only seen in males. During persistent colon inflammation, males exhibit worse disease progression than females, which is manifested as worse physical appearance and higher weight loss. However, no measurable sex differences were observed in persistent inflammation-induced bowel pathology, stool consistency or fecal blood. Overall, our findings demonstrate that visceral pain-related behaviors and disease progression in the context of acute and persistent colon inflammation are sex-dependent, highlighting the importance of considering sex as a biological variable in future mechanistic studies of visceral pain as well as in the development of diagnostics and therapeutic options for chronic gastrointestinal diseases.

Viruses ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 135
Adam J. Kleinman ◽  
Ivona Pandrea ◽  
Cristian Apetrei

HIV infection requires lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART) to control disease progression. Although ART has greatly extended the life expectancy of persons living with HIV (PWH), PWH nonetheless suffer from an increase in AIDS-related and non-AIDS related comorbidities resulting from HIV pathogenesis. Thus, an HIV cure is imperative to improve the quality of life of PWH. In this review, we discuss the origins of various SIV strains utilized in cure and comorbidity research as well as their respective animal species used. We briefly detail the life cycle of HIV and describe the pathogenesis of HIV/SIV and the integral role of chronic immune activation and inflammation on disease progression and comorbidities, with comparisons between pathogenic infections and nonpathogenic infections that occur in natural hosts of SIVs. We further discuss the various HIV cure strategies being explored with an emphasis on immunological therapies and “shock and kill”.

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