csf leakage
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2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Yuefei Zhou ◽  
Jialiang Wei ◽  
Feng Feng ◽  
Jianguo Wang ◽  
Pengfei Jia ◽  

IntroductionThe endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA) is a safe and effective treatment for pituitary adenomas (PAs). Since extracapsular resection (ER) of PAs improves tumor resection and endocrine remission rates, the interface between the pseudocapsule and gland draws increasing attention. However, it is difficult to precisely dissect the tumor along the exact boundary, and complete removal of the tumor increases the risks of normal tissue damage and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage. In this study, we investigated the extracapsular resection as well as the pseudocapsule histology to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of pseudocapsule-related surgical interventions.MethodsFrom December 2017 to December 2019, 189 patients of PAs via EEA in our single center were analyzed retrospectively. The images, operative details, and clinical follow-up of patients were collected. Sixty-four patients underwent pseudocapsule-based ER, and 125 patients also underwent traditional intracapsular resection (IR) with or without intensive excision for FPAs. The clinical characteristics, tumor resection, endocrinological outcomes, and postoperative morbidities of the two groups were compared. Informed consent for publication of our article was obtained from each patient. Histological examination of pseudocapsule was performed using hematoxylin and eosin and reticulin staining.ResultsThe gross total recession was 62 (96.9%) in the ER group and 107 (85.6%) cases in the IR group, whereas the endocrine remission rate was 29/31 (93.5%) and 40/53 (75.5%) cases, respectively. Anterior pituitary functions were not aggravated postoperatively in any patient, but transient diabetes insipidus (DI) occurred more in the IR group (64.0%) than in ER (48.4%). Pseudocapsule specimens were obtained in 93 patients, and clusters of small cell aggregation were detected in 11 pseudocapsule specimens (11.8%) whereas other patients showed no remarkable developed pseudocapsule. Intraoperative CSF leak occurred more in the ER group (28.1%) than in the IR group (13.6%), but no difference was seen between two groups postoperatively. No case of intracranial hematoma or pituitary crisis occurred in both groups. After a mean follow-up of 22.8 months, tumor recurrence was observed in 4 (2.1%) cases.ConclusionPseudocapsule-based extracapsular resection of PAs via EEA is an effective and safe procedure to achieve complete resection with high and sustained endocrine remission and without deteriorating pituitary function.

Pier Paolo Mattogno ◽  
Valerio M. Caccavella ◽  
Martina Giordano ◽  
Quintino G. D'Alessandris ◽  
Sabrina Chiloiro ◽  

Abstract Purpose Transsphenoidal surgery (TSS) for pituitary adenomas can be complicated by the occurrence of intraoperative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage (IOL). IOL significantly affects the course of surgery predisposing to the development of postoperative CSF leakage, a major source of morbidity and mortality in the postoperative period. The authors trained and internally validated the Random Forest (RF) prediction model to preoperatively identify patients at high risk for IOL. A locally interpretable model-agnostic explanations (LIME) algorithm is employed to elucidate the main drivers behind each machine learning (ML) model prediction. Methods The data of 210 patients who underwent TSS were collected; first, risk factors for IOL were identified via conventional statistical methods (multivariable logistic regression). Then, the authors trained, optimized, and audited a RF prediction model. Results IOL reported in 45 patients (21.5%). The recursive feature selection algorithm identified the following variables as the most significant determinants of IOL: Knosp's grade, sellar Hardy's grade, suprasellar Hardy's grade, tumor diameter (on X, Y, and Z axes), intercarotid distance, and secreting status (nonfunctioning and growth hormone [GH] secreting). Leveraging the predictive values of these variables, the RF prediction model achieved an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.83 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.78; 0.86), significantly outperforming the multivariable logistic regression model (AUC = 0.63). Conclusion A RF model that reliably identifies patients at risk for IOL was successfully trained and internally validated. ML-based prediction models can predict events that were previously judged nearly unpredictable; their deployment in clinical practice may result in improved patient care and reduced postoperative morbidity and healthcare costs.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Chao-Hung Kuo ◽  
Yi-Hsuan Kuo ◽  
Chih-Chang Chang ◽  
Hsuan-Kan Chang ◽  
Li-Yu Fay ◽  

Objective:Cervical myelopathy caused by ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) is not uncommon among Asian ethnic groups. Despite reports comparing the pros and cons of anterior- and posterior-only approaches, the optimal management remains debatable. This study aimed to evaluate the outcomes of patients who underwent a combined anterior and posterior approach, simultaneous circumferential decompression and fixation, for cervical OPLL.Method:The study retrospectively reviewed patients with OPLL and who underwent circumferential decompression and fixation, combined anterior corpectomy and posterior laminectomy. The clinical outcomes were evaluated by the Visual Analog Scale of neck and arm pain, the Japanese Orthopedic Association scores, Neck Disability Index, and Nurick scores at each time-point of evaluation. Radiological evaluations included plain and dynamic radiographs and computed tomography for every patient within 2 years post-operation. Subgroup analyses were further performed between the groups, with and without intra-operative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage.Results:A total of 41 patients completed the follow-up for more than 2 years (mean = 39.8 months) and were analyzed. Continuous-type OPLL was the most common (44%), followed by segmental (27%), mixed (22%), and localized types (7%) in the cohort. Myelopathy and all other functional outcomes improved significantly at 2 years post-operation (all p < 0.05). There were 13 (32%) patients who had intra-operative CSF leakage. At 2 years post-operation, there were no differences in the demographics, functional outcomes, and complication rates between the CSF-leakage and no-leakage groups. The CSF-leakage group had more patients with continuous-type OPLL than the no-leakage group (77 vs. 29%, p = 0.004 < 0.05). During the follow-up, there was no secondary or revision surgery for pseudomeningocele, pseudarthrosis, or other surgery-related complications.Conclusions:Simultaneous circumferential decompression and fixation combine the surgical benefits of sufficient decompression by the posterior approach and direct decompression of OPLL by the anterior approach. It is an effective surgical option for patients with cervical myelopathy caused by OPLL, given that myelopathy unanimously improved without neurological complications in this study. The fusion rates were high, and reoperation rates were low. Despite higher rates of CSF leakage, there were no related long-term sequelae, and minimal wound complications.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Xin Huang ◽  
Xuejun Zhang ◽  
Jian Zhou ◽  
Gang Li ◽  
Gang Zheng ◽  

Abstract Objective To analyse the risk factors for intracranial infection after neuroendoscopic transnasal pituitary adenoma resection (NTPAR) to provide a reference for the prevention and treatment of postoperative intracranial infection. Methods The clinical data of 387 patients who underwent NTPAR in the Department of Neurosurgery of the First People’s Hospital of Yichang from March 2013 to March 2021 were retrospectively analysed. The patients were divided into an infected group and a noninfected group according to the occurrence of intracranial infection. The detailed clinical data of the two groups were collected. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was used to analyse the risk factors for intracranial infection after NTPAR. Results Among the 387 surgical patients, 32 patients (8.27%) were in the intracranially infected group and 355 patients (91.73%) were in the noninfected group. The results of the univariate analysis suggested that age > 45 years, tumour size > 1 cm, operation time > 240 min, blood loss > 400 ml, Kelly Grade of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage > Grade 2, postoperative CSF leakage, lumbar cistern drainage and blood transfusion were the influencing factors for postoperative intracranial infection, while the results of multivariate logistic regression analysis implied that intraoperative CSF leakage (Kelly Grade > 2) and postoperative CSF leakage were independent influencing factors for intracranial infection after NTPAR, and perioperative use of antibiotics was an independent protective factor for postoperative intracranial infection. Conclusions There are a variety of risk factors for intracranial infection after NTPAR, which indicates that it is necessary to develop different repair strategies for CSF leakage according to the Kelly Grade, timely treatment of postoperative CSF leakage and perioperative use of antibiotics. These measures have been shown to effectively reduce the probability of intracranial infection after NTPAR.

2022 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
pp. 0
SatyaBhusan Senapati ◽  
ArunKumar Panigrahi ◽  
Debasish Panda ◽  
Subhasish Panigrahi

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
pp. 628
Nobuya Murakami ◽  
Ai Kurogi ◽  
Yoshihisa Kawakami ◽  
Yushi Noguchi ◽  
Makoto Hayashida ◽  

Background: Terminal myelocystocele (TMC) is an occult spinal dysraphism characterized by cystic dilatation of the terminal spinal cord in the shape of a trumpet (myelocystocele) filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which herniates into the extraspinal subcutaneous region. The extraspinal CSF-filled portion of the TMC, consisting of the myelocystocele and the surrounding subarachnoid space, may progressively enlarge, leading to neurological deterioration, and early untethering surgery is recommended. Case Description: We report a case of a patient with TMC associated with OEIS complex consisting of omphalocele (O), exstrophy of the cloaca (E), imperforate anus (I), and spinal deformity (S). The untethering surgery for TMC had to be deferred until 10 months after birth because of the delayed healing of the giant omphalocele and the respiration instability due to hypoplastic thorax and increased intra-abdominal pressure. The TMC, predominantly the surrounding subarachnoid space, enlarged during the waiting period, resulting in the expansion of the caudal part of the dural sac. Although untethering surgery for the TMC was uneventfully performed with conventional duraplasty, postoperative CSF leakage occurred, and it took three surgical interventions to repair it. External CSF drainage, reduction of the size of the caudal part of the dural sac and use of gluteus muscle flaps and collagen matrix worked together for the CSF leakage. Conclusion: Preoperative enlargement of the TMC, together with the surrounding subarachnoid space, can cause the refractory CSF leakage after untethering surgery because the expanded dural sac possibly increases its own tensile strength and impedes healing of the duraplasty. Early untethering surgery is recommended after recovery from the life-threatening conditions associated with OEIS complex.

Diagnostics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (12) ◽  
pp. 2278
Hyo Jin Kim ◽  
Joon Woo Lee ◽  
Eugene Lee ◽  
Yusuhn Kang ◽  
Joong Mo Ahn

The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the incidence of spinal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks in patients with nontraumatic intracranial subdural hematoma (SDH) and determine clinical parameters favoring such leaks. This retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board. Patients diagnosed with nontraumatic intracranial SDH who underwent computed tomography (CT) myelography between January 2012 and March 2018 were selected. 60 patients (male: female, 39:21; age range, 20–82 years) were enrolled and divided into CSF leak-positive and CSF leak-negative groups according to CT myelography data. Clinical findings were statistically compared between the two groups. Spinal CSF leak was observed in 80% (48/60) of patients, and it was significantly associated with an age of <69 years (p = 0.006). However, patients aged ≥69 years also had a tendency to exhibit spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH)-induced nontraumatic intracranial SDH (60.87%; 14/23). Therefore, CT myelography is recommended to be performed for the evaluation of possible SIH in patients with nontraumatic intracranial SDH, particularly those aged <69 years. Patients aged ≥69 years are also good candidates for CT myelography because SIH tends to occur even in this age group.

OBJECTIVE When comparing endoscopic endonasal surgery (EES) and transcranial microsurgery (TCM) for adult and mixed-age population craniopharyngiomas, EES has become an alternative to TCM. To date, studies comparing EES and TCM for pediatric craniopharyngiomas are sparse. In this study, the authors aimed to compare postoperative complications and surgical outcomes between EES and TCM for pediatric craniopharyngiomas. METHODS The data of pediatric patients with craniopharyngiomas who underwent surgery between February 2009 and June 2021 at a single center were retrospectively reviewed. All included cases were divided into EES and TCM groups according to the treatment modality received. The baseline characteristics of patients were compared between the groups, as well as surgical results, perioperative complications, and long-term outcomes. To control for confounding factors, propensity-adjusted analysis was performed. RESULTS Overall, 51 pediatric craniopharyngioma surgeries were identified in 49 patients, among which 35 were treated with EES and 16 were treated with TCM. The proportion of gross-total resection (GTR) was similar between the groups (94.3% for EES vs 75% for TCM, p = 0.130). TCM was associated with a lower rate of hypogonadism (33.3% vs 64.7%, p = 0.042) and a higher rate of growth hormone deficiency (73.3% vs 26.5%, p = 0.002), permanent diabetes insipidus (DI) (60.0% vs 29.4%, p = 0.043), and panhypopituitarism (80.0% vs 47.1%, p = 0.032) at the last follow-up. CSF leakage only occurred in the EES group, with no significant difference observed between the groups (p > 0.99). TCM significantly increased the risk of worsened visual outcomes (25.0% vs 0.0%, p = 0.012). However, TCM was associated with a significantly longer median duration of follow-up (66.0 vs 40.5 months, p = 0.007) and a significantly lower rate of preoperative hypogonadism (18.8% vs 60.0%, p = 0.006). The propensity-adjusted analysis revealed no difference in the rate of recurrence, hypogonadism, or permanent DI. Additionally, EES was associated with a lower median gain in BMI (1.5 kg/m2 vs 7.5 kg/m2, p = 0.046) and better hypothalamic function (58.3% vs 8.3%, p = 0.027) at the last follow-up. CONCLUSIONS Compared with TCM, EES was associated with a superior visual outcome, better endocrinological and hypothalamic function, and less BMI gain, but comparable rates of GTR, recurrence, and perioperative complications. These findings have indicated that EES is a safe and effective surgical modality and can be a viable alternative to TCM for pediatric midline craniopharyngiomas.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
pp. 578
Antonio Colamaria ◽  
Matteo Sacco ◽  
Savino Iodice ◽  
Nicola Pio Fochi ◽  
Francesco Carbone

Background: Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) represents the most common neurosurgical disease. Given the demographic shift toward an aging population, the overall incidence of this condition is increasing. Nevertheless, clarity in the pathophysiological process is yet to be made. Several etiological mechanisms have been proposed to initiate and consequently promote fluid collection in the subdural space. Traumatic injury of the bridging veins has long been considered the primum movens of the pathology but increasing evidence shows that trauma is not the only factor involved. Along with recent advances we sought to understand the role of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the buildup of the intense inflammatory reaction that characterizes CSDH. Methods: In the present study, we examined histological features of reactive membranes secondary to extracranial CSF leakage with CSDH-related membranes. Similarity and differences between the specimens were examined by means of light microscopy. Results: Histological similarities were consistently found between CSDH membranes and reactive membranes secondary to CSF leakage in the extracranial space. Activated histiocytes were highlighted in all specimens along with an intense inflammatory reaction. Conclusion: CSDH is most likely the result of a complex interaction among different pathophysiological events resulting from both traumatic and inflammatory etiologies. In the present work, we highlight how CSF leakage could be an early factor that leads to a cascade of events that culminates in CSDH formation.

Hung-Chieh Chen ◽  
Jyh-wen Chai ◽  
Chih-Cheng Wu ◽  
Po-Lin Chen ◽  
Chieh-Lin Teng

Objectives: Most patients with spinal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage require an epidural blood patch (EBP); however, the response to treatment is varied. This study aimed to compare the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings at follow-up between EBP effective and non-effective groups and to identify imaging findings that predict EBP treatment failure. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 48 patients who received EBP treatment for spinal CSF leakage. These patients were stratified into two groups: EBP effective (n = 27) and EBP non-effective (n = 21) using the results of the 3 month MRI as the endpoint. Results: Compared to the EBP non-effective group, the patients in the EBP effective group had a lower spinal CSF leakage number (2.67 vs 12.48; p = 0.001), lower spinal epidural fluid accumulation levels (3.00 vs 7.48; p = 0.004), brain descend (11.11% vs 38.10%; p = 0.027), pituitary hyperemia (18.52% vs 57.14%; p = 0.007), and decreased likelihood of ≥three numbers of spinal CSF leakage (25.93% vs 90.48%; p = 0.001) in the post-EBP MRI. Clinical non-responsiveness (OR: 57.84; 95% CI: 3.47–972.54; p = 0.005) and ≥three numbers of spinal CSF leakage (OR: 15.13; 95% CI: 1.45–159.06; p = 0.023) were associated with EBP failure. Between these variables,≥three numbers of spinal CSF leakage identified using the post-EBP MRI demonstrated greater sensitivity in predicting EBP failure compared to clinical non-responsiveness (90.48% vs 61.9%). Conclusion: The number of spinal CSF leakage identified using the post-EBP MRI with a cut-off value of three is an effective predictor of EBP failure. Advances in knowledge: Compared to clinical responsiveness, the post-EBP MRI provided a more objective approach to predict the effectiveness of EBP treatment in patients with spinal CSF leakage.

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