scholarly journals Intracerebral hemorrhage during the pandemic- Learning from experience

2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (4) ◽  
pp. 301-305
Thomas Iype ◽  
Dileep Ramachandran ◽  
Praveen Panicker ◽  
Sunil D ◽  
Manju Surendran ◽  

Worldwide stroke care was affected by COVID 19 pandemic and the majority of the literature was on ischemic stroke. Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) accounts for about one-fourth of strokes worldwide and has got high mortality and morbidity. We aimed to study the effect of the Pandemic on ICH outcomes and flow metrics during the first wave compared to the pre-pandemic period and how that experience was made used in managing ICH during the second wave. Ours was a single-center observational study, where consecutive patients with non-COVID spontaneous ICH aged more than 18 years who presented within 24 hours of last seen normal were included in the study. We selected the months of June, July, and August in 2021 as the second wave of the pandemic, the same months in 2020 as the first wave of the pandemic, and the same months in 2019 as the pre-pandemic period. We compared the 3-month functional outcomes, in hospital mortality and workflow metrics during the three time periods. We found poor three-month functional outcomes and higher hospital mortality during the first wave of the COVID 19 pandemic, which improved during the second wave. In-hospital time metrics measured by the door to CT time which was delayed during the first wave improved to a level better than the pre-pandemic period during the second wave. ICH volume was more during the first and second waves compared to the pre-pandemic period. Other observations of our study were younger age during the second wave and higher baseline systolic BP at admission during both pandemic waves. Our study showed that functional outcomes and flow metrics in ICH care improved during the second wave of the pandemic through crucial re-organization of hospital stroke workflows. We are sharing this experience because we may have to do further rearrangements in future as the upcoming times are challenging due to new variants emerging.

Stroke ◽  
2014 ◽  
Vol 45 (suppl_1) ◽  
Kunihiro Nishimura ◽  
Satoru Kamitani ◽  
Michikazu Nakai ◽  
Akiko Kada ◽  
Fumiaki Nakamura ◽  

Background and Purpose: The effectiveness of organized stroke care on stroke mortality and morbidity remains uncertain. We examined whether organized stroke care index (OCI), which graded 0-3 based on the presence of rehabilitation, stroke team assessment, and admission to a stroke unit developed by Saposnik (Neurology 2010) influence in-hospital mortality and morbidity of patients with ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke in a nationwide study. Methods: Of the 1369 certified training institutions in Japan, 749 hospitals responded to a questionnaire survey regarding comprehensive stroke care capacities. Among the institutions that responded, data on patients hospitalized between April 1, 2010 and March 31, 2011, because of stroke were obtained from the Japanese Diagnosis Procedure Combination database. In-hospital mortality morbidity was analyzed using hierarchical logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, level of consciousness on admission, and the number of OCI fulfilled in each component and in total.It was supported by Grants-in-Aid from the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan Results: Data from 265 institutions and 53,170 emergency-hospitalized patients were analyzed. Patients fulfilled the criteria for admission to a SCU, stroke team assessment and the presence of rehabilitation were 28.9%, 42.1% and 95.1%, respectively. Mortality adjusted for age, sex, and level of consciousness was significantly correlated with admission to a SCU (OR=0.87, p=0.039), SCU team assessment (OR=0.88,p=0.029), and OCI ( OR=0.93, p=0.031). Modified ranking scale 0 to 2 rate were also associated with significantly SCU admission (p=0.003) .These association holds for ischemic stroke and subarachnoid hemorrhage. Conclusion: A strong association between organized stroke care and lower mortality was apparent. These data suggest that organized stroke care should be provided to stroke patients regardless of stroke subtype.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Sijia Li ◽  
Wenjuan Wang ◽  
Qian Zhang ◽  
Yu Wang ◽  
Anxin Wang ◽  

Background: Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is associated with high rates of mortality and morbidity. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is related to increased risk of cardiovascular events and is also closely associated with adverse outcomes after ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke. However, there are limited data about the effect of ALP on clinical outcomes after ICH. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the relationship between serum ALP level and prognosis in ICH patients.Methods: From January 2014 to September 2016, 939 patients with spontaneous ICH were enrolled in our study from 13 hospitals in Beijing. Patients were categorized into four groups based on the ALP quartiles (Q1, Q2, Q3, Q4). The main outcomes were 30-day, 90-day, and 1-year poor functional outcomes (modified Rankin Scale score of 3–6). Multivariable logistic regression and interaction analyses were performed to evaluate the relationships between ALP and clinical outcomes after ICH.Results: In the logistic regression analysis, compared with the third quartile of ALP, the adjusted odds ratios of the Q1, Q2, and Q4 for 30-day poor functional outcome were 1.31 (0.80–2.15), 1.16 (0.71–1.89), and 2.16 (1.32–3.55). In terms of 90-day and 1-year poor functional outcomes, the risks were significantly higher in the highest quartile of ALP compared with the third quartile after adjusting the confounding factors [90-day: highest quartile OR = 1.86 (1.12–3.10); 1-year: highest quartile OR = 2.26 (1.34–3.80)]. Moreover, there was no significant interaction between ALP and variables like age or sex.Conclusions: High ALP level (>94.8 U/L) was independently associated with 30-day, 90-day, and 1-year poor functional outcomes in ICH patients. Serum ALP might serve as a predictor for poor functional outcomes after ICH onset.

Stroke ◽  
2017 ◽  
Vol 48 (suppl_1) ◽  
Nadeem Khan ◽  
Fazeel Siddiqui ◽  
Joshua Goldstein ◽  
Ying Xian ◽  
Margueritte Cox ◽  

Introduction: Use of anti-platelet therapy is common among patients presenting with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). There are limited data regarding pre-stroke antiplatelet therapy (APT) and outcomes in patients presenting with spontaneous ICH. We hypothesized that prior use of antiplatelet agents increases mortality and discharge morbidity in ICH patients. Methods: We analyzed data of 82,576 ICH patients not on anticoagulation from 2185 GWTG-Stroke hospitals between Oct 2012 and March 2016. Patients were categorized as no APT, single antiplatelet therapy (SAPT) and dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT). Logistic regression using generalized estimating equations to account for within-site correlations were used to assess the relationship between outcomes and prior-APT use. Results: No pre-ICH APT was used in 65.8%, SAPT in 29.5%, and DAPT in 4.8%. The median age of the cohort was 69 years and prevalence of females in the cohort was 48.6%, with preponderance of white race (58.9%). Overall onset of symptoms to arrival time was 131 minutes with a median NIHSS of 9. A total of 23.7% had history of previous stroke/transient ischemic attack, 15.3% had prior myocardial infarction/coronary artery disease and 73.4% had known hypertension. There was no significant difference in in-hospital mortality among patients not on any APT vs patients on SAPT. However, in-hospital mortality was higher among ICH patients on DAPT compared with no therapy (adjusted OR 1.41, 95 % CI 1.31-1.51, P<0.0001). Conclusion: Our study suggests that patients on DAPT, but not on SAPT, have higher mortality rates after ICH compared with patients on no APT.

2021 ◽  
pp. 194187442110070
Felix Ejike Chukwudelunzu ◽  
Bart M Demaerschalk ◽  
Leonardo Fugoso ◽  
Emeka Amadi ◽  
Donn Dexter ◽  

Background and purpose: In-hospital stroke-onset assessment and management present numerous challenges, especially in community hospitals. Comprehensive analysis of key stroke care metrics in community-based primary stroke centers is under-studied. Methods: Medical records were reviewed for patients admitted to a community hospital for non-cerebrovascular indications and for whom a stroke alert was activated between 2013 and 2019. Demographic, clinical, radiologic and laboratory information were collected for each incident stroke. Descriptive statistical analysis was employed. When applicable, Kruskal-Wallis and Chi-Square tests were used to compare median values and categorical data between pre-specified groups. Statistical significance was set at alpha = 0.05. Results: There were 192 patients with in-hospital stroke-alert activation; mean age (SD) was 71.0 years (15.0), 49.5% female. 51.6% (99/192) had in-hospital ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. The most frequent mechanism of stroke was cardioembolism. Upon stroke activation, 45.8% had ischemic stroke while 40.1% had stroke mimics. Stroke team response time from activation was 26 minutes for all in-hospital activations. Intravenous thrombolysis was utilized in 8% of those with ischemic stroke; 3.4% were transferred for consideration of endovascular thrombectomy. In-hospital mortality was 17.7%, and the proportion of patients discharged to home was 34.4% for all activations. Conclusion: The in-hospital stroke mortality was high, and the proportions of patients who either received or were considered for acute intervention were low. Quality improvement targeting increased use of acute stroke intervention in eligible patients and reducing hospital mortality in this patient cohort is needed.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Tsung-Hsien Wang ◽  
Chin-Pyng Wu ◽  
Li-Ying Wang

AbstractThe influence of peripheral muscle strength on prognosis after extubation and subsequent functional outcomes is not evident. The objectives of this study were to determine (1) whether peripheral muscle strength can be used as a predictor for patients’ prognoses after extubation, and (2) whether the peripheral muscle strength before extubation is correlated with patients’ subsequent ambulation ability and in-hospital mortality. This study was a prospective observational cohort study. A hand-held dynamometer was used for evaluated the muscle strength of the biceps and quadriceps right before extubation. Besides, after the patients had been transferred from the ICU to the general ward, a 2-minute walk test was performed. A total of 52 patients were enrolled in this study, and the rate of extubation failure was 15%. The muscle strength of the quadriceps was significantly correlated with the prognosis after extubation, 48% of the patients were able to ambulate after being transferred to the general ward. The overall mortality rate was 11%, and there was a significant correlation between the biceps muscle strength and in-hospital mortality. Peripheral muscle strength may serve as an important predictor of a patients’ prognoses after extubation. Poor peripheral muscle strength is indicative of not only a higher risk of re-intubation but also higher in-hospital mortality and poorer functional outcomes.Trial registration: ISRCTN16370134. Registered 30 May 2019, prospectively registered.

Salma Younes ◽  
Muthanna Samara ◽  
Rana Al-Jurf ◽  
Gheyath Nasrallah ◽  
Sawsan Al-Obaidly ◽  

Preterm birth (PTB) and early term birth (ETB) are associated with high risks of perinatal mortality and morbidity. While extreme to very PTBs have been extensively studied, studies on infants born at later stages of pregnancy, particularly late PTBs and ETBs, are lacking. In this study, we aimed to assess the incidence, risk factors, and feto-maternal outcomes of PTB and ETB births in Qatar. We examined 15,865 singleton live births using 12-month retrospective registry data from the PEARL-Peristat Study. PTB and ETB incidence rates were 8.8% and 33.7%, respectively. PTB and ETB in-hospital mortality rates were 16.9% and 0.2%, respectively. Advanced maternal age, pre-gestational diabetes mellitus (PGDM), assisted pregnancies, and preterm history independently predicted both PTB and ETB, whereas chromosomal and congenital abnormalities were found to be independent predictors of PTB but not ETB. All groups of PTB and ETB were significantly associated with low birth weight (LBW), large for gestational age (LGA) births, caesarean delivery, and neonatal intensive care unit (NICU)/or death of neonate in labor room (LR)/operation theatre (OT). On the other hand, all or some groups of PTB were significantly associated with small for gestational age (SGA) births, Apgar <7 at 1 and 5 minutes and in-hospital mortality. The findings of this study may serve as a basis for taking better clinical decisions with accurate assessment of risk factors, complications, and predictions of PTB and ETB.

Life ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (6) ◽  
pp. 564
Yen-Bo Liu ◽  
Lu-Ting Kuo ◽  
Chih-Hao Chen ◽  
Woon-Man Kung ◽  
Hsin-Hsi Tsai ◽  

Coagulopathy-related intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is life-threatening. Recent studies have shown promising results with minimally invasive neurosurgery (MIN) in the reduction of mortality and improvement of functional outcomes, but no published data have recorded the safety and efficacy of MIN for coagulopathy-related ICH. Seventy-five coagulopathy-related ICH patients were retrospectively reviewed to compare the surgical outcomes between craniotomy (n = 52) and MIN (n = 23). Postoperative rebleeding rates, morbidity rates, and mortality at 1 month were analyzed. Postoperative Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended (GOSE) and modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores at 1 year were assessed for functional outcomes. Morbidity, mortality, and rebleeding rates were all lower in the MIN group than the craniotomy group (8.70% vs. 30.77%, 8.70% vs. 19.23%, and 4.35% vs. 23.08%, respectively). The 1-year GOSE score was significantly higher in the MIN group than the craniotomy group (3.96 ± 1.55 vs. 3.10 ± 1.59, p = 0.027). Multivariable logistic regression analysis also revealed that MIN contributed to improved GOSE (estimate: 0.99650, p = 0.0148) and mRS scores (estimate: −0.72849, p = 0.0427) at 1 year. MIN, with low complication rates and improved long-term functional outcome, is feasible and favorable for coagulopathy-related ICH. This promising result should be validated in a large-scale prospective study.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-6
Silvia Pastor ◽  
Elena de Celis ◽  
Itsaso Losantos García ◽  
María Alonso de Leciñana ◽  
Blanca Fuentes ◽  

<b><i>Introduction:</i></b> Stroke is a serious health problem, given it is the second leading cause of death and a major cause of disability in the European Union. Our study aimed to assess the impact of stroke care organization measures (such as the development of stroke units, implementation of a regional stroke code, and treatment with intravenous thrombolysis and mechanical thrombectomy) implemented from 1997 to 2017 on hospital admissions due to stroke and mortality attributed to stroke in the Madrid health region. <b><i>Methods:</i></b> Epidemiological data were obtained from the National Statistics Institute public website. We collected data on the number of patients discharged with a diagnosis of stroke, in-hospital mortality due to stroke and the number of inhabitants in the Madrid health region each year. We calculated rates of discharges and mortality due to stroke and the number of inhabitants per SU bed, and we analysed temporal trends in in-hospital mortality due to stroke using the Daniels test in 2 separate time periods (before and after 2011). Figures representing annual changes in these data from 1997 to 2017 were elaborated, marking stroke care organizational measures in the year they were implemented to visualize their temporal relation with changes in stroke statistics. <b><i>Results:</i></b> Hospital discharges with a diagnosis of stroke have increased from 170.3/100,000 inhabitants in 1997 to 230.23/100,000 inhabitants in 2017. However, the in-hospital mortality rate due to stroke has decreased (from 33.3 to 15.2%). A statistically significant temporal trend towards a decrease in the mortality percentage and rate was found from 1997 to 2011. <b><i>Conclusions:</i></b> Our study illustrates how measures such as the development of stroke units, implementation of a regional stroke code and treatment with intravenous thrombolysis coincide in time with a reduction in in-hospital mortality due to stroke.

Neurosurgery ◽  
2009 ◽  
Vol 64 (3) ◽  
pp. 436-446 ◽  
Jennifer Jaffe ◽  
Lora AlKhawam ◽  
Hongyan Du ◽  
Kristen Tobin ◽  
Judith O'Leary ◽  

Abstract OBJECTIVE Risk predictors, spectrum of treatment eligibility, and range of expected outcomes have not been validated in consecutive series including all cases of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) subjected to a prospective management protocol based on current guidelines. METHODS Eighty-six cases of ICH were prospectively identified in conjunction with screening for a clinical trial during an 18-month period. All patients were subjected to protocolized management based on published “best practice” guidelines for ICH. Medical records were reviewed by trained researchers, and outcomes were assessed at various time points including latest follow-up (range, 0–24 months; mean, 3.97 months). Initial assessment parameters, treatment eligibility, and outcomes were based on standardized criteria. RESULTS In accordance with past literature, mortality and functional outcomes were significantly worse in older patients, those with a larger ICH volume, and worse Glasgow Coma Scale scores, in univariate and multivariate models. The presence and severity of associated intraventricular hemorrhage also correlated with mortality and outcome. Significantly lower mortality (P = 0.024) and better functional outcomes (P = 0.018) were achieved at 30 days in patients with an ICH volume of less than 30 cm3 in this series than in previously published community-based historical controls without protocolized care. A tight correspondence between treatment eligibility and treatment administered was found. CONCLUSION Previous estimates of poorer outcome in patients with ICH might not apply to contemporary management protocols, especially in patients with a smaller ICH volume. Outcome ranges in various risk categories and modeling of treatment eligibility will help project more realistic prognostication and assist with the design of future trials.

2015 ◽  
Vol 187 ◽  
pp. 60-62 ◽  
Ana Paula Porto Rödel ◽  
Manuela Borges Sangoi ◽  
Larissa Garcia de Paiva ◽  
Jossana Parcianello ◽  
José Edson Paz da Silva ◽  

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