Hospital Mortality
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2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (29) ◽  
pp. 8749-8762
Diana Ronderos ◽  
Alaa Mabrouk Salem Omar ◽  
Hafsa Abbas ◽  
Jasbir Makker ◽  
Ahmed Baiomi ◽  

Trauma ◽  
2021 ◽  
pp. 146040862110501
Yunfei Qiu ◽  
Mark Fitzgerald ◽  
Biswadev Mitra

Introduction The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) has been proposed as a marker of systemic inflammation in major trauma patients that is associated with in-hospital mortality. We aimed to determine the discriminative ability of initial NLR as a predictor of outcomes following major trauma. Methods This was a registry-based cohort study involving all major trauma patients meeting criteria for inclusion into the Alfred Health Trauma Registry who presented directly from the scene of injury over a 24-month period (January 2018 to December 2019). The initial NLR was calculated for each patient and was compared against the Shock Index (SI), lactate and Revised Trauma Score (RTS). Outcomes observed were mortality at hospital discharge and intensive care unit (ICU) admission. We assessed the predictive capacity of each test using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and performed area under the ROC curve (AUROC) analysis to compare their performance. Results Data were extracted for 1687 major trauma patients, of which 72% were male, the median age was 49 years (IQR 31–68) and most (90%) of patients presented after a blunt mechanism of injury. In-hospital mortality occurred in 165 (9.77%) patients, and 725 (42.92%) patients required ICU admission. The median NLR was 6.84 (IQR 3.89–11.52). Initial NLR performed poorly with an AUROC of 0.46 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.40–0.52) for prediction of mortality and AUROC of 0.53 (95% CI: 0.50–0.56) for prediction of ICU admission. The AUROCs of initial NLR for both mortality at hospital discharge and ICU admission were significantly lower than SI, lactate and RTS. Conclusion Initial NLR was not predictive of outcomes in major trauma. NLR at other time-points may provide better predictive capacity for outcomes.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
David M. Smadja ◽  
Guillaume Bonnet ◽  
Nicolas Gendron ◽  
Orianne Weizman ◽  
Lina Khider ◽  

Background: Microthrombosis and large-vessel thrombosis are the main triggers of COVID-19 worsening. The optimal anticoagulant regimen in COVID-19 patients hospitalized in medical wards remains unknown.Objectives: To evaluate the effects of intermediate-dose vs. standard-dose prophylactic anticoagulation (AC) among patients with COVID-19 hospitalized in medical wards.Methods and results: We used a large French multicentric retrospective study enrolling 2,878 COVID-19 patients hospitalized in medical wards. After exclusion of patients who had an AC treatment before hospitalization, we generated a propensity-score-matched cohort of patients who were treated with intermediate-dose or standard-dose prophylactic AC between February 26 and April 20, 2020 (intermediate-dose, n = 261; standard-dose prophylactic anticoagulation, n = 763). The primary outcome of the study was in-hospital mortality; this occurred in 23 of 261 (8.8%) patients in the intermediate-dose group and 74 of 783 (9.4%) patients in the standard-dose prophylactic AC group (p = 0.85); while time to death was also the same in both the treatment groups (11.5 and 11.6 days, respectively, p = 0.17). We did not observe any difference regarding venous and arterial thrombotic events between the intermediate dose and standard dose, respectively (venous thrombotic events: 2.3 vs. 2.4%, p=0.99; arterial thrombotic events: 2.7 vs. 1.2%, p = 0.25). The 30-day Kaplan–Meier curves for in-hospital mortality demonstrate no statistically significant difference in in-hospital mortality (HR: 0.99 (0.63–1.60); p = 0.99). Moreover, we found that no particular subgroup was associated with a significant reduction in in-hospital mortality.Conclusion: Among COVID-19 patients hospitalized in medical wards, intermediate-dose prophylactic AC compared with standard-dose prophylactic AC did not result in a significant difference in in-hospital mortality.

Toshiki Kuno ◽  
Yuki Sahashi ◽  
Shinpei Kawahito ◽  
Mai Takahashi ◽  
Masao Iwagami ◽  

Stroke ◽  
2021 ◽  
Hagen B. Huttner ◽  
Stefan T. Gerner ◽  
Joji B. Kuramatsu ◽  
Stuart J. Connolly ◽  
Jan Beyer-Westendorf ◽  

Background and Purpose: It is unestablished whether andexanet alfa, compared with guideline-based usual care including prothrombin complex concentrates, is associated with reduced hematoma expansion (HE) and mortality in patients with factor-Xa inhibitor–related intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). We compared the occurrence of HE and clinical outcomes in patients treated either with andexanet alfa or with usual care during the acute phase of factor-Xa inhibitor–related ICH. Methods: Data were extracted from the multicenter, prospective, single-arm ANNEXA-4 trial (Andexanet Alfa, a Novel Antidote to the Anticoagulation Effects of Factor Xa Inhibitors) and a multicenter observational cohort study, RETRACE-II (German-Wide Multicenter Analysis of Oral Anticoagulant-Associated Intracerebral Hemorrhage - Part Two). HE was based on computed tomography scans performed within 36 hours from baseline imaging. Inverse probability of treatment weighting was performed to adjust for baseline comorbidities and ICH severity. Patients presenting with atraumatic ICH while receiving apixaban or rivaroxaban within 18 hours of admission were included. Patients with secondary ICH or not fulfilling the inclusion criteria for the ANNEXA-4 trial were excluded. We compared ANNEXA-4 patients, who received andexanet alfa for hemostatic treatment, with RETRACE-II patients who were treated with usual care, primarily administration of prothrombin complex concentrates. Primary outcome was rate of HE defined as relative increase of ≥35%. Secondary outcomes comprised mean absolute change in hematoma volume, as well as in-hospital mortality and functional outcome. Results: Overall, 182 patients with factor-Xa inhibitor–related ICH (85 receiving andexanet alfa versus 97 receiving usual care) were selected for analysis. There were no relevant differences regarding demographic or clinical characteristics between both groups. HE occurred in 11 of 80 (14%) andexanet alfa patients compared with 21 of 67 (36%) usual care patients (adjusted relative risk, 0.40 [95% CI, 0.20–0.78]; P =0.005), with a reduction in mean overall hematoma volume change of 7 mL. There were no statistically significant differences among in-hospital mortality or functional outcomes. Sensitivity analysis including only usual care patients receiving prothrombin complex concentrates demonstrated consistent results. Conclusions: As compared with usual care, andexanet alfa was associated with a lower rate of HE in atraumatic factor-Xa inhibitor–related ICH, however, without translating into significantly improved clinical outcomes. A comparative trial is needed to confirm the benefit on limiting HE and to explore clinical outcomes across patient subgroups and by time to treatment.

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (20) ◽  
pp. 4719
Mi-Yeon Eun ◽  
Jin-Woo Park ◽  
Bang-Hoon Cho ◽  
Kyung-Hee Cho ◽  
Sungwook Yu

Background: We aimed to determine whether estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) is an independent predictor of clinical outcomes in patients with acute ischemic stroke not treated with reperfusion therapy. Methods: A total of 1420 patients with acute ischemic stroke from a hospital-based stroke registry were included in this study. Patients managed with intravenous thrombolysis or endovascular reperfusion therapy were excluded. The included patients were categorized into five groups according to eGFR, as follows: ≥90, 60–89, 45–59, 30–44, and <30 mL/min/1.73 m2. The effects of eGFR on functional outcome at discharge, in-hospital mortality, neurologic deterioration, and hemorrhagic transformation were evaluated using logistic regression analyses. Results: In univariable logistic regression analysis, reduced eGFR was associated with poor functional outcome at discharge (p < 0.001) and in-hospital mortality (p = 0.001), but not with neurologic deterioration and hemorrhagic transformation. However, no significant associations were observed between eGFR and any clinical outcomes in multivariable analysis after adjusting for clinical and laboratory variables. Conclusions: Reduced eGFR was associated with poor functional outcomes at discharge and in-hospital mortality but was not an independent predictor of short-term clinical outcomes in patients with acute ischemic stroke who did not undergo reperfusion therapy.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Bethsabee Partouche ◽  
Marion Pepin ◽  
Pauline Mary de Farcy ◽  
Jean-Emmanuel Kahn ◽  
Bruno Sawczynski ◽  

Abstract Introduction Infection is one of the major causes of mortality and morbidity in older adults. Available biomarkers are not associated with prognosis in older patients. This study aimed to analyze the value of eosinopenia (eosinophil count< 100/mm3) as a prognosis marker among older patients with suspected or confirmed bacterial infection. Methods A retrospective study was performed from 1 January to 31 December 2018 among patients in a geriatrics ward suffering from a bacterial infection treated with antibiotics. Biomarker data including the eosinophil count, neutrophil count and C-reactive protein (CRP) were collected within 4 days after patient diagnosis. Persistent eosinopenia was defined as a consistent eosinophil count< 100/mm3 between Day 2 and Day 4. The association of biomarkers with 30-day hospital mortality in a multivariate analysis was assessed and their predictive ability using the area under the ROC curve (AUC) was compared. Results Our study included 197 patients with a mean age of 90 ± 6 years. A total of 36 patients (18%) died during their stay in hospital. The patients who died were more likely to have persistent eosinopenia in comparison to survivors (78% versus 34%, p < 0.001). In the multivariate analysis, persistent eosinopenia was associated with in-hospital mortality with an adjusted HR of 8.90 (95%CI 3.46–22.9). The AUC for eosinophil count, CRP and neutrophil count between Day 2 and Day 4 were 0.7650, 0.7130, and 0.698, respectively. Conclusion Persistent eosinopenia within 4 days of diagnosis of bacterial infection appeared to be a predictor of in-hospital mortality in older patients.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-14
Yihua Dong ◽  
Yu Pan ◽  
Wei Zhou ◽  
Yanhuo Xia ◽  
Jingye Pan

Background. Elevated red cell distribution width (RDW) has been reported to be associated with mortality in some critically ill patient populations. The aim of this article is to investigate the relationship between RDW and in-hospital mortality and short- and long-term mortality of patients with cholecystitis. Method. We conducted a retrospective cohort study in which data from all 702 patients extracted from the Medical Information Mart for Intensive Care III (MIMIC-III) database were used. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed to evaluate the prognostic predictive value of RDW for in-hospital mortality and short- (i.e., 30-day and 90-day) and long-term (i.e., 180-day, 1-year, 3-year, and 5-year) mortality. We converted RDW into a categorical variable according to quintiles as less than or equal to 13.9%, 14.0-14.8%, 14.9-15.8%, and 15.9-17.2% and more than 17.2%. The Kaplan-Meier (K-M) methods and log-rank tests were used to compare survival differences among different groups. The relationships between RDW levels and in-hospital mortality were evaluated by univariate and multivariate binary logistic regression models. Multivariable Cox regression models were built to investigate the association of RDW on the short-term and long-term mortality. Result. After adjusting for potential confounders, RDW was positively associated with in-hospital mortality (OR: 1.187, 95% CI [1.049, 1.343]) and short- (i.e., 30-day: HR: 1.183, 95% CI [1.080, 1.295], 90-day: HR: 1.175, 95% CI [1.089, 1.268]) and long-term (i.e., 1-year: HR:1.162, 95% CI [1.089, 1.240]) mortality in critically ill patients with cholecystitis. Similar results were also shown in the secondary outcomes of 180-day, 3-year, and 5-year mortality. RDW had a significant accurate prognostic effect on different endpoints and could improve the prognostic effect of scoring systems. Conclusion. High level of RDW is associated with an increased risk of in-hospital mortality and short- and long-term mortality in critically ill patients with cholecystitis. RDW can independently predict the prognosis of patients with cholecystitis.

Medicina ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 57 (10) ◽  
pp. 1094
Motoi Ugajin ◽  
Hisanori Kani ◽  
Hideo Hattori

Background and objectives: Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is commonly performed to evaluate diffuse lung disease and occasionally to identify alveolar hemorrhage. However, the clinical impact of alveolar hemorrhage and its risk factors in patients with diffuse lung disease have not been clarified. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of all patients who underwent BAL to evaluate diffuse lung disease from January 2017 to December 2020. Alveolar hemorrhage was defined as progressive hemorrhagic BAL fluid or the presence of ≥20% hemosiderin-laden macrophages in the BAL fluid. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the association between alveolar hemorrhage and other factors. Results: Sixty subjects were enrolled in this study. Alveolar hemorrhage was observed in 19 subjects (31.7%) with idiopathic interstitial pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, interstitial pneumonia with autoimmune features, drug-induced lung injury, eosinophilic pneumonia, adenocarcinoma, and systemic lupus erythematosus. The use of anticoagulants was a significant risk factor for alveolar hemorrhage (odds ratio 7.57, p = 0.049). Patients with alveolar hemorrhage required intubated mechanical ventilation more frequently (63.2% vs. 24.4%, p = 0.005) and had higher in-hospital mortality rates (26.3% vs. 4.9%, p = 0.028) than those without alveolar hemorrhage. Conclusions: Alveolar hemorrhage was observed in various etiologies. The use of anticoagulants was a significant risk factor for alveolar hemorrhage. Patients with alveolar hemorrhage showed more severe respiratory failure and had higher in-hospital mortality than those without alveolar hemorrhage.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-5
Kiew-Kii Lau ◽  
Cheng-Ting Hsiao ◽  
Wen-Chih Fann ◽  
Chia-Peng Chang

Background. The lactate/albumin (L/A) ratio has been proposed as a prognostic marker because the ratio is associated with multiple organ failure and mortality in critically ill patients. We aimed to investigate the clinical utility of the L/A ratio as a good prognostic indicator of mortality in a cohort of necrotizing fasciitis patients. Method. This retrospective study was conducted in two tertiary hospitals in Taiwan between 2015 and 2020. We reviewed adult patients with measured serum lactate and albumin on the emergency department (ED) arrival to evaluate the prognostic performance of the lactate and lactate/albumin (L/A) ratio for outcome prediction. Result. Of the 262 NF patients, 20 (7.63%) died in the hospital. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) value of the L/A ratio (0.76, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.69–0.81, P < 0.01 ) was higher than lactate alone (0.71, 95% CI 0.65–0.74 P < 0.01 ) for predicting in-hospital mortality. The optimal cutoff of the L/A ratio was 1.61. The AUROC value of the L/A ratio was better than lactate alone regardless of normal lactate level. The cutoff of L/A ratio and hypoalbuminemia showed further discriminative value for in-hospital mortality even in patients with normal lactate levels. Conclusion. The prognostic performance of the L/A ratio was superior to a single measurement of lactate for predicting in-hospital mortality and intensive care unit (ICU) lengths in necrotizing fasciitis patients. Aggressive intervention and intensive care were necessary for high-risk NF patients upon ED arrival.

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