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2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 119-127
Grace A. McCabe ◽  
Todd Goodwin ◽  
Douglas F. Johnson ◽  
Anthony Fok ◽  

AIM: To report 4 cases of Cryptococcus gattii (C. gattii) species complex infection with diverse ophthalmic manifestations, and to review the literature to examine pathobiology of disease, classical ophthalmic presentations and outcomes, and treatment modalities for this emerging pathogen. METHODS: Cases of C. gattii meningoencephalitis with ophthalmic manifestations were identified via chart review at two institutions in Australia and one institution in the mid-west region of the United States and are reported as a case series. Additionally, a MEDLINE literature review was conducted to identify all reported cases of C. gattii with ophthalmic manifestations from 1990-2020. Cases were reviewed and tabulated, together with our series of patients, in this report. RESULTS: Four cases of C. gattii with ophthalmic manifestations are presented; three from Australia and one from the USA. A literature review identified a total of 331 cases of C. gattii with visual sequelae. The majority of cases occurred in immunocompetent individuals. Blurred vision and diplopia were the most common presenting symptoms, with papilloedema the most common sign, reported in 10%-50% of cases. Visual loss was reported in 10%-53% of cases, as compared to rates of visual loss of 1%-9% in C. neoformans infection. Elevated intracranial pressure, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fungal burden, and abnormal neurological exam at presentation correlated with poor visual outcomes. The mainstays of treatment are anti-fungal agents and aggressive management of intracranial hypertension with serial lumbar punctures. CSF diversion procedures should be considered for refractory cases. Acetazolamide and mannitol are associated with high complication rates, and adjuvant corticosteroids have demonstrated higher mortality rates; these treatments should be avoided. CONCLUSION: Permanent visual loss represents a devastating yet potentially preventable sequelae of C. gattii infection. Intracranial hypertension needs to be recognised early and aggressively managed. Referral to an ophthalmologist/neuro-ophthalmologist in all cases of cryptococcal infection independent of visual symptoms at time of diagnosis is recommended.

Shazia Mehmood Siddique ◽  
Shivan J. Mehta ◽  
Afshin Parsikia ◽  
Mark D. Neuman ◽  
James D. Lewis

2022 ◽  
Vol 38 (3) ◽  
Yun Han ◽  
Ganggang Peng ◽  
Lijun Liu ◽  
Xiaohua Xie

Objectives: To retrospectively evaluate a multidisciplinary cooperative first aid model for the treatment of patients with pelvic and multiple fractures in the emergency department. Methods: The records of patients with pelvic fractures complicated with multiple fractures treated in our hospital from February 2020 to April 2021 were selected, of which 34 patients received conventional trauma first aid mode (control group) and 34 patients received multidisciplinary joint first aid mode (study group). We compared pelvic function (Majeed functional score) and fracture reduction outcomes, as well as serum inflammatory factor levels and complication rates after treatment between the two groups. Results: The Majeed score in the study group (90.15 ± 6.83) was higher than that in the control group (75. 47 ± 5.35), and the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05). The value for combined excellent and good rates of fracture reduction in the study group (85.29%, 29/34) was significantly higher than that in the control group (58.82%, 20/34), and the difference was statistically significant(P<0.05). We found similar levels of TNF-a and IL-6 between the two groups at admission (P>0.05); however, the serum levels of TNF-a and IL-6 in the study group were lower than those in the control group on the fifth day after admission, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05 or P<0.01). The incidence of complications in the study group (17.64%, 6/34) was significantly lower than that in the control group (61.76%, 21/34), the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion: The multidisciplinary cooperative first aid model for the treatment of patients with pelvic and multiple fractures can effectively shorten the treatment time, increase the excellent functional rehabilitation rate, inhibit the release of inflammatory factors, and reduce the incidence of complications (such as infections), when compared to the conventional trauma emergency system. doi: How to cite this:Han Y, Peng G, Liu L, Xie X. Multidisciplinary cooperative first aid model for the treatment of patients with pelvic and multiple fractures. Pak J Med Sci. 2022;38(3):---------. doi: This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 408
Rony-Orijit Dey Hazra ◽  
Johanna Illner ◽  
Karol Szewczyk ◽  
Mara Warnhoff ◽  
Alexander Ellwein ◽  

Introduction: The optimal treatment strategy for the proximal humeral fracture (PHF) remains controversial. The debate is centered around the correct treatment strategy in the elderly patient population. The present study investigated whether age predicts the functional outcome of locking plate osteosynthesis for this fracture entity. Methods: A consecutive series of patients with surgically treated displaced PHF between 01/2017 and 01/2018 was retrospectively analyzed. Patients were treated by locking plate osteosynthesis. The cohort was divided into two groups: Group 1 (≥65 years) and Group 2 (<65 years). At the follow-up examination, the SSV, CMS, ASES, and Oxford Shoulder Score (OS), as well as a radiological follow-up, was obtained. The quality of fracture reduction is evaluated according to Schnetzke et al. Results: Of the 95 patients, 79 were followed up (83.1%). Group 1 consists of 42 patients (age range: 65–89 years, FU: 25 months) and Group 2 of 37 patients (28–64 years, FU: 24 months). The clinical results showed no significant differences between both groups: SSV 73.4 ± 23.4% (Group 1) vs. 80.5 ± 189% (Group 2). CMS: 79.4 ± 21 vs. 81.9 ± 16, ASES: 77.2 ± 20.4 vs. 77.5 ± 23.1, OS: 39.5 ± 9.1 vs. 40.8 ± 8.2; OS: 39.5 ± 9.1 vs. 40.8 ± 8.2. In the radiological follow-up, fractures healed in all cases. Furthermore, the quality of fracture reduction in both groups is comparable without significant differences. The revision rate was 9.5% in Group 1 vs. 16.2% in Group 2. Discussion: Both age groups show comparable functional outcomes and complication rates. Thus, the locking plate osteosynthesis can be used irrespective of patient age; the treatment decision should instead be based on fracture morphology and individual patient factors.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Chao-Hung Kuo ◽  
Yi-Hsuan Kuo ◽  
Chih-Chang Chang ◽  
Hsuan-Kan Chang ◽  
Li-Yu Fay ◽  

Objective:Cervical myelopathy caused by ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) is not uncommon among Asian ethnic groups. Despite reports comparing the pros and cons of anterior- and posterior-only approaches, the optimal management remains debatable. This study aimed to evaluate the outcomes of patients who underwent a combined anterior and posterior approach, simultaneous circumferential decompression and fixation, for cervical OPLL.Method:The study retrospectively reviewed patients with OPLL and who underwent circumferential decompression and fixation, combined anterior corpectomy and posterior laminectomy. The clinical outcomes were evaluated by the Visual Analog Scale of neck and arm pain, the Japanese Orthopedic Association scores, Neck Disability Index, and Nurick scores at each time-point of evaluation. Radiological evaluations included plain and dynamic radiographs and computed tomography for every patient within 2 years post-operation. Subgroup analyses were further performed between the groups, with and without intra-operative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage.Results:A total of 41 patients completed the follow-up for more than 2 years (mean = 39.8 months) and were analyzed. Continuous-type OPLL was the most common (44%), followed by segmental (27%), mixed (22%), and localized types (7%) in the cohort. Myelopathy and all other functional outcomes improved significantly at 2 years post-operation (all p &lt; 0.05). There were 13 (32%) patients who had intra-operative CSF leakage. At 2 years post-operation, there were no differences in the demographics, functional outcomes, and complication rates between the CSF-leakage and no-leakage groups. The CSF-leakage group had more patients with continuous-type OPLL than the no-leakage group (77 vs. 29%, p = 0.004 &lt; 0.05). During the follow-up, there was no secondary or revision surgery for pseudomeningocele, pseudarthrosis, or other surgery-related complications.Conclusions:Simultaneous circumferential decompression and fixation combine the surgical benefits of sufficient decompression by the posterior approach and direct decompression of OPLL by the anterior approach. It is an effective surgical option for patients with cervical myelopathy caused by OPLL, given that myelopathy unanimously improved without neurological complications in this study. The fusion rates were high, and reoperation rates were low. Despite higher rates of CSF leakage, there were no related long-term sequelae, and minimal wound complications.

Nabeel Mansour ◽  
Osman Öcal ◽  
Mirjam Gerwing ◽  
Michael Köhler ◽  
Sinan Deniz ◽  

Abstract Purpose To compare the safety and outcome of transjugular versus percutaneous technique in recanalization of non-cirrhotic, non-malignant portal vein thrombosis. Methods We present a retrospective bicentric analysis of 21 patients with non-cirrhotic, non-malignant PVT, who were treated between 2016 and 2021 by interventional recanalization via different access routes (percutaneous [PT] vs. transjugular in transhepatic portosystemic shunt [TIPS] technique). Complication rates with a focus on periprocedural bleeding and patency as well as outcome were compared. Results Of the 21 patients treated (median age 48 years, range of 19–78), seven (33%) patients had an underlying prothrombotic condition. While 14 (57%) patients were treated for acute PVT, seven (43%) patients had progressive thrombosis with known chronic PVT. Nine patients underwent initial recanalization via PT access and twelve via TIPS technique. There was no significant difference in complete technical success rate according to initial access route (55.5% in PT group vs. 83.3% in TIPS group, p = 0.331). However, creation of an actual TIPS was associated with higher technical success in restoring portal venous flow (86.6% vs. 33.3%, p = 0.030). 13 (61.9%) patients received thrombolysis. Nine (42.8%) patients experienced hemorrhagic complications. In a multivariate analysis, thrombolysis (p = 0.049) and PT access as the first procedure (p = 0.045) were significant risk factors for bleeding. Conclusion Invasive recanalization of the portal vein in patients with PVT and absence of cirrhosis and malignancy offers a good therapeutic option with high recanalization and patency rates. Bleeding complications result predominantly from a percutaneous access and high amounts of thrombolytics used; therefore, recanalization via TIPS technique should be favored.

Komal Saeed ◽  
Farid Ahmad Khan ◽  
Saad Bin Abdul Qudus ◽  
Sundas Javed

Autologous fat grafting (AFG) is an emerging therapeutic option for wounds that are not ready for grafting. The regenerative potential of autologous fat lies in the adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs) contained within the stromal vascular fraction (SVF), which are capable of differentiating into multiple cell lineages. However to date, there has been no comprehensive evaluation of its efficacy in acute complicated wounds. This study aims to critically evaluate the efficacy and safety of AFG in cutaneous wound healing. Materials and Methods: This prospective, quasi experimental study was conducted in the Department Of Plastic Surgery, SIMS, Lahore, between June 2020 and June 2021. Thirty patients with pale granulation, not ready for grafting with no vital structure exposed were included in the study after detailed history, examination and were photographed pre and postoperatively. The procedure was performed under local anaesthesia. 40 to 80 ml fat was harvested from lower abdomen and after emulsification, placed over the wound wrapped in sufra tulle dressing. The dressing was changed on third postoperative day and outcome was assessed on clinical grounds. Results: Thirty patients (M:F Ratio 1.75:1) with mean age 30 years (Range 13-45 years) were included in this study with post traumatic (n = 23) and post infective (n = 7). Of 27 patients who completed their follow up, all had healthy granulation tissue which was later on grafted. Mean number of fat dressing sessions were 2 (Range 1-3). Conclusion: Autologous fat grafting has shown promising results for cutaneous wounds without any unacceptably high complication rates reported so far. Randomised controlled trials should be done on a larger scale to prove its efficacy in the management of complicated wounds.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 ◽  
pp. 9
Giancarlo Saal-Zapata ◽  
Basavaraj Ghodke ◽  
Melanie Walker ◽  
Ivethe Pregúntegui-Loayza ◽  
Rodolfo Rodríguez-Varela

Background: Large volume coils are an alternative to conventional coils for the treatment of intracranial aneurysms. However, there are no published reports documenting occlusion and complication rates in medium and large intracranial aneurysms. Therefore, we present our results in this subgroup of aneurysms. Methods: A single-center, retrospective analysis of consecutive patients treated with Penumbra coils 400 in aneurysms ≥7 mm was performed. Demographics, aneurysm features, procedural details, intraoperative complications, clinical outcomes, and occlusion rates were analyzed. Results: Thirty-three patients were included for analysis, and a total of 33 intracranial aneurysms were analyzed. Mean age was 57.6 years (SD ± 12.4) and 85% of the patients were women. Large aneurysms represented 46% of cases. Paraclinoid (55%) followed by posterior communicating (30.3%) aneurysms was the most frequently treated. Ruptured and saccular aneurysms were found in 49% and 63% of the cases, respectively. The mean aneurysmal dimensions were 14.2 mm width, 11.9 mm length, 5.4 mm neck, and 2.4 dome-to-neck ratio. A dome-neck ratio <2 was identified in 39% of cases. The mean number of coils per aneurysm was 4.8. Immediate modified Raymond–Roy Grades 1, 2, and 3A were achieved in 15%, 21%, and 64%, respectively. Twenty-six patients were evaluated at a mean follow-up period of 11 months, with an adequate occlusion of 92% and a good clinical outcome (modified Rankin score ≤2) in 96% of patients. Conclusion: Endovascular treatment with PC400 coils is an effective and safe option for medium and large intracranial aneurysms with high occlusion rates, few complications, and good clinical outcomes at follow-up.

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