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Cytokine ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 151 ◽  
pp. 155794
Usman Ahmed ◽  
Jeremy Soo ◽  
Andrea L. Conroy ◽  
Sophie Namasopo ◽  
Robert O. Opoka ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 3 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-30
Nisha Panwar ◽  
Shantanu Sharma ◽  
Guoxi Wang ◽  
Sharad Mehrotra ◽  
Nalini Venkatasubramanian ◽  

Contemporary IoT environments, such as smart buildings, require end-users to trust data-capturing rules published by the systems. There are several reasons why such a trust is misplaced—IoT systems may violate the rules deliberately or IoT devices may transfer user data to a malicious third-party due to cyberattacks, leading to the loss of individuals’ privacy or service integrity. To address such concerns, we propose IoT Notary , a framework to ensure trust in IoT systems and applications. IoT Notary provides secure log sealing on live sensor data to produce a verifiable “proof-of-integrity,” based on which a verifier can attest that captured sensor data adhere to the published data-capturing rules. IoT Notary is an integral part of TIPPERS, a smart space system that has been deployed at the University of California, Irvine to provide various real-time location-based services on the campus. We present extensive experiments over real-time WiFi connectivity data to evaluate IoT Notary , and the results show that IoT Notary imposes nominal overheads. The secure logs only take 21% more storage, while users can verify their one day’s data in less than 2 s even using a resource-limited device.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Sarah A. Lau-Braunhut ◽  
Audrey M. Smith ◽  
Martina A. Steurer ◽  
Brittany L. Murray ◽  
Hendry Sawe ◽  

Pediatric sepsis remains a significant cause of childhood morbidity and mortality, disproportionately affecting resource-limited settings. As more patients survive, it is paramount that we improve our understanding of post-sepsis morbidity and its impact on functional outcomes. The functional status scale (FSS) is a pediatric validated outcome measure quantifying functional impairment, previously demonstrating decreased function following critical illnesses, including sepsis, in resource-rich settings. However, functional outcomes utilizing the FSS in pediatric sepsis survivors have never been studied in resource-limited settings or in non-critically ill septic children. In a Tanzanian cohort of pediatric sepsis patients, we aimed to evaluate morbidity associated with an acute septic episode using the FSS modified for resource-limited settings. This was a prospective cohort study at an urban referral hospital in Tanzania, including children with sepsis aged 28 days to 14 years old over a 12-month period. The FSS was adapted to the site's available resources. Functional status scale scores were obtained by interviewing guardians both at the time of presentation to determine the child's baseline and at 28-day follow-up. The primary outcome was “decline in functional status,” as defined by a change in FSS score of at least 3. In this cohort, 4.3% of the 1,359 surviving children completing 28-day follow-up had a “decline in functional status.” Conversely, 13.8% of guardians reported that their child was not yet back to their pre-illness state. Three-quarters of children reported as not fully recovered were not identified via the FSS as having a decline in functional status. In our cohort of pediatric sepsis patients, we identified a low rate of decline in functional status when using the FSS adapted for resource-limited settings. A higher proportion of children were subjectively identified as not being recovered to baseline. This suggests that the FSS has limitations in this population, despite being adapted for resource-limited settings. Next steps include developing and validating a further revised FSS to better capture patients identified as not recovered but missed by the current FSS.

Shu Hui Ng

AbstractMalaysia hosts a significant number of refugees, asylum-seekers and migrant workers. Healthcare access for these individuals has always proved a challenge: language barriers, financial constraints and mobility restrictions are some of the frequently cited hurdles. The COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated these existing inequalities, with migrants and refugees bearing the brunt of chronic systemic injustices. Providing equitable healthcare access for all, regardless of their citizenship and social status remains an ethical challenge for healthcare providers, particularly within the framework of a resource-limited healthcare system. Inclusive healthcare and socio-economic policies are necessary to ensure every individual’s equal opportunity to attain good health. The collective experiences of refugees and migrants in the pursuit of healthcare, as highlighted by the two cases described, showcases the importance of equity in healthcare access and the detrimental implications of non-inclusive healthcare and socio-economic policies.

2022 ◽  
Adnan Hadid ◽  
Taher AL-Shantout ◽  
Rayan Terkawi ◽  
Baraa Aldbes ◽  
Manal Zahran ◽  

Abstract Background: Telemedicine is widely used in neonatal services in developed countries. Lack of expertise and/or facilities, however, limited its use in developing countries and around areas of military conflicts. To our knowledge, no reports are demonstrating the feasibility of administering therapeutic hypothermia (TH) through telemedicine to neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) in resource-limited areas.Methodology: This is a retrospective study, evaluating 22 patients who received TH, guided by telemedicine, through a mobile app (Telegram®). We assessed the feasibility of utilizing Telemedicine in guiding the application of TH to infants affected with HIE in the North-West of Syria between July 2020 and July 2021.Results: Out of 5,545 newborn infants delivered during the study period, 22 patients were eligible for TH guided by Telemedicine. Patients were referred for consultation at a median (IQR) of 137 (35-165) minutes of life. A median (IQR) of 12 (3-18) minutes elapsed between the call for a consultation and the consultant response, and a median (IQR) of 30 (0-42) minutes elapsed between seeking the consultation and the initiation of cooling therapy. Eighteen patients completed cooling for 72 hours. The patients' temperatures were within the target range (33-34°C) most of the time (84.1%).Conclusion: Telemedicine is a feasible method to guide the implementation TH for HIE in resource-limited areas. The short-term success rate is relatively high; however, further studies with a larger population are needed to confirm these findings.

Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 608
Cameron Aume ◽  
Keith Andrews ◽  
Shantanu Pal ◽  
Alice James ◽  
Avishkar Seth ◽  

Nowadays, there is tremendous growth in the Internet of Things (IoT) applications in our everyday lives. The proliferation of smart devices, sensors technology, and the Internet makes it possible to communicate between the digital and physical world seamlessly for distributed data collection, communication, and processing of several applications dynamically. However, it is a challenging task to monitor and track objects in real-time due to the distinct characteristics of the IoT system, e.g., scalability, mobility, and resource-limited nature of the devices. In this paper, we address the significant issue of IoT object tracking in real time. We propose a system called ‘TrackInk’ to demonstrate our idea. TrackInk will be capable of pointing toward and taking pictures of visible satellites in the night sky, including but not limited to the International Space Station (ISS) or the moon. Data will be collected from sensors to determine the system’s geographical location along with its 3D orientation, allowing for the system to be moved. Additionally, TrackInk will communicate with and send data to ThingSpeak for further cloud-based systems and data analysis. Our proposed system is lightweight, highly scalable, and performs efficiently in a resource-limited environment. We discuss a detailed system’s architecture and show the performance results using a real-world hardware-based experimental setup.

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
Andy Bauleni ◽  
Fentanesh N. Tiruneh ◽  
Tisungane E. Mwenyenkulu ◽  
Owen Nkoka ◽  
Gowokani C. Chirwa ◽  

Abstract Background Despite the limited knowledge regarding the effects of deworming medication (DM) on nutritional indicators in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), deworming programmes continue to be implemented in resource-limited countries. Therefore, the current study aimed to examine the effects of DM on anaemia among children aged 6–59 months in SSA. Methods The analysis was performed using data obtained from 17 demographic and health surveys (DHSs) conducted in SSA. Children were considered to be anaemic if their haemoglobin (Hb) concentration was less than 11.0 g/dl, adjusting for altitude. To account for both multiple measures at the cluster level and the clustering of children within the same country, generalized linear mixed models were used to analyse the anaemia outcomes in 50,075 children aged 6–59 months. Results Overall, anaemia was reported in 61.8% of the children, and their median Hb concentration was 10.5 g/dl (interquartile range 9.4–11.5). The prevalence of anaemia ranged from 34.5% in Rwanda to 81.1% in Mali. Multivariate analyses showed that children who did not receive DM had increased odds of being anaemic (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 1.11; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.07–1.16). Conclusions The current study revealed that DM can decrease the risk of anaemia among preschool-age children (pre-SAC) in SSA. Thus, tailored public health programmes aimed at reducing childhood anaemia need to consider deworming. However, longitudinal studies are needed to validate the association that has been reported in this cross-sectional study. Graphical Abstract

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Firanbon Teshome ◽  
Zewdie Birhanu ◽  
Yohannes Kebede

Abstract Background Preconception care helps to close the gaps in a continuum of care. It is of paramount importance to reduce maternal and child adverse pregnancy outcomes, increase the utilization of services such as antenatal care, skilled delivery care, and post-natal care, and improve the lives of future generations. Therefore, a validated instrument is required. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate the preconception care improvement scale (PCIS) in a resource-limited setting. Methods A mixed-method study was carried out from 02, March to 10, April 2019 in Manna district, Oromia region, Ethiopia to test the reliability and validity of the scale. Items were generated from literatures review, in-depth interviews with different individuals, and focused group discussions with women of reproductive age groups. A pretested structured questionnaire was used and a survey was conducted among 623 pregnant women in the district. The collected data were entered into EPI-data version 3.1 software and exported to SPSS version 23 software and data were analyzed for internal consistency and validity using reliability analysis and factor analysis. Results The PCIS has 17 items loaded into six factors: Substance-related behaviors, screening for common non-communicable and infectious diseases, micronutrient supplementation and vaccination, seeking advice, decision and readiness for conception, and screening for sexually transmitted diseases. Factor analysis accounted for 67.51% of the observed variance. The internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha) of the scale was 0.776. Diversified participants of the qualitative study and experts’ discussions assured the face and content validity of the scale. Factor loading indicated the convergent validity of the scale. Three of the PCIS subscale scores had a positive and significant association with the practice of preconception care and antenatal care visits, which confirmed the predictive validity of the scale. Conclusion The PCIS exhibited good reliability, face validity, content validity, convergent validity, and predictive validity. Thus, the scale is valid and helps to improve preconception care, especially in resource-limited settings.

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