younger age
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Jessica Sherman ◽  
Christina Dyar ◽  
Jodi McDaniel ◽  
Nicholas T. Funderburg ◽  
Karen M. Rose ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (4) ◽  
pp. 301-305
Thomas Iype ◽  
Dileep Ramachandran ◽  
Praveen Panicker ◽  
Sunil D ◽  
Manju Surendran ◽  

Worldwide stroke care was affected by COVID 19 pandemic and the majority of the literature was on ischemic stroke. Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) accounts for about one-fourth of strokes worldwide and has got high mortality and morbidity. We aimed to study the effect of the Pandemic on ICH outcomes and flow metrics during the first wave compared to the pre-pandemic period and how that experience was made used in managing ICH during the second wave. Ours was a single-center observational study, where consecutive patients with non-COVID spontaneous ICH aged more than 18 years who presented within 24 hours of last seen normal were included in the study. We selected the months of June, July, and August in 2021 as the second wave of the pandemic, the same months in 2020 as the first wave of the pandemic, and the same months in 2019 as the pre-pandemic period. We compared the 3-month functional outcomes, in hospital mortality and workflow metrics during the three time periods. We found poor three-month functional outcomes and higher hospital mortality during the first wave of the COVID 19 pandemic, which improved during the second wave. In-hospital time metrics measured by the door to CT time which was delayed during the first wave improved to a level better than the pre-pandemic period during the second wave. ICH volume was more during the first and second waves compared to the pre-pandemic period. Other observations of our study were younger age during the second wave and higher baseline systolic BP at admission during both pandemic waves. Our study showed that functional outcomes and flow metrics in ICH care improved during the second wave of the pandemic through crucial re-organization of hospital stroke workflows. We are sharing this experience because we may have to do further rearrangements in future as the upcoming times are challenging due to new variants emerging.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
Till Koopmann ◽  
Franziska Lath ◽  
Dirk Büsch ◽  
Jörg Schorer

Abstract Background Research on talent in sports aims to identify predictors of future performance. This study retrospectively investigated 1) relationships between young handball field players’ technical throwing skills and (a) their potential nomination to youth national teams and (b) their long-term career attainment 10 years later, and 2) associations between nomination status and career attainment. Results Results from retrospectively predicting nomination status and career attainment using logistic regression analyses show that technical throwing skills were partly able to explain players’ nomination status (Nagelkerke R2: females 9.2%, males 13.1%) and career attainment (Nagelkerke R2: 9.8% for female players). Here, variables throwing velocity and time on exercise showed statistically significant effects. In addition, nomination status and career attainment were shown to be associated using chi-square tests (w of .37 and .23 for female and male players, respectively) and nomination status as a predictor increased the prediction of career attainment remarkably (Nagelkerke R2: females 20.3%, males 12.7%). Conclusions Given these results, basic technical throwing skills may serve rather as a prerequisite in this age group on national level, emphasizing its importance already on lower levels and in younger age groups. Furthermore, advantages from entering the national TID system early especially for females are discussed.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Hongmei Zhao ◽  
Jian Yu ◽  
Yuan Zong ◽  
Chunhui Jiang ◽  
Haohao Zhu ◽  

Purpose: To investigate the characteristics of silicone oil (SO) emulsification after vitrectomy for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) and possible correlations with clinical factors.Methods: Patients who underwent primary pars plana vitrectomy with SO injection for RRD followed by SO removal at the Eye and ENT Hospital of Fudan University between January 2016 and January 2020 were included. Ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) images of the anterior segment were taken before SO removal. Eight signs of SO emulsification in the UBM images were graded as 1 (present) or 0 (not present) and the grades for all signs in each eye were summed. Correlations between SO emulsification grade and clinical factors were determined.Results: A total of 118 patients (118 eyes) were enrolled in this study. Emulsified SO particles were found in all 118 eyes (100%). The eight signs were more frequently detected in the superior part of the eye. The mean total SO emulsification grade was 19.99 ± 12.98 (range: 1–36). Younger age and male (both P < 0.05) were associated with higher total SO emulsification grade. Patients with intraocular pressure (IOP) > 21 mmHg or the use of antiglaucoma medications at the time of SO removal had a higher total SO emulsification grade, were younger, and were more frequently male (all P < 0.05) than patients without ocular hypertension.Conclusions: UBM could play an important role in the diagnosis and grading of SO emulsification. Younger patients and males are more prone to SO emulsification, which may lead to elevated IOP.

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 ◽  
Frank van Tubergen

Refugees face significant barriers in the labor markets of western countries due to limited transferability of educational credentials. Post-migration education can increase refugees’ chances in the labor market, but little is known about the prevalence and underlying patterns of such post-secondary educational investments. I contribute to the literature by analyzing survey data from the Netherlands on post-migration education among more than 3,000 adult refugees who come from Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, former Yugoslavia, and Somalia. I find that refugees’ investments in schooling depend on both pre- and post-migration characteristics. Results show that post-migration schooling is more common among adult refugees who are higher educated, who arrived at a younger age, who have applied for recognition of their foreign education, and who have (successfully) participated in integration and/or language courses. When refugees are kept in an asylum center for a longer time, they are less likely to invest in post-migration education.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (2) ◽  
pp. e1120
Omar Al-Louzi ◽  
Vijay Letchuman ◽  
Sargis Manukyan ◽  
Erin S. Beck ◽  
Snehashis Roy ◽  

Background and ObjectivesThe central vein sign (CVS), a central linear hypointensity within lesions on T2*-weighted imaging, has been established as a sensitive and specific biomarker for the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS). However, the CVS has not yet been comprehensively studied in newly developing MS lesions. We aimed to identify the CVS profiles of new white matter lesions in patients with MS followed over time and investigate demographic and clinical risk factors associated with new CVS+ or CVS− lesion development.MethodsIn this retrospective longitudinal cohort study, adults from the NIH MS Natural History Study were considered for inclusion. Participants with new T2 or enhancing lesions were identified through review of the radiology report and/or longitudinal subtraction imaging. Each new lesion was evaluated for the CVS. Clinical characteristics were identified through chart review.ResultsA total of 153 adults (95 relapsing-remitting MS, 27 secondary progressive MS, 16 primary progressive MS, 5 clinically isolated syndrome, and 10 healthy; 67% female) were included. Of this cohort, 96 had at least 1 new T2 or contrast-enhancing lesion during median 3.1 years (Q1–Q3: 0.7–6.3) of follow-up; lesions eligible for CVS evaluation were found in 62 (65%). Of 233 new CVS-eligible lesions, 159 (68%) were CVS+, with 30 (48%) individuals having only CVS+, 12 (19%) only CVS−, and 20 (32%) both CVS+ and CVS− lesions. In gadolinium-enhancing (Gd+) lesions, the CVS+ percentage increased from 102/152 (67%) at the first time point where the lesion was observed, to 92/114 (82%) after a median follow-up of 2.8 years. Younger age (OR = 0.5 per 10-year increase, 95% CI = 0.3–0.8) and higher CVS+ percentage at baseline (OR = 1.4 per 10% increase, 95% CI = 1.1–1.9) were associated with increased likelihood of new CVS+ lesion development.DiscussionIn a cohort of adults with MS followed over a median duration of 3 years, most newly developing T2 or enhancing lesions were CVS+ (68%), and nearly half (48%) developed new CVS+ lesions only. Importantly, the effects of edema and T2 signal changes can obscure small veins in Gd+ lesions; therefore, caution and follow-up is necessary when determining their CVS status.Trial Registration InformationClinical trial registration number NCT00001248.Classification of EvidenceThis study provides Class III evidence that younger age and higher CVS+ percentage at baseline are associated with new CVS+ lesion development.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Tianqi Xu ◽  
Leidi Xu ◽  
Hangtian Xi ◽  
Yong Zhang ◽  
Ying Zhou ◽  

Background: Lung cancer is the leading source of cancer-caused disability-adjusted life years. Medical cost burden impacts the well-being of patients through reducing income, cutting daily expenses, curtailing leisure activities, and depleting exhausting savings. The COmprehensive Score for Financial Toxicity (COST) was created and validated by De Souza and colleagues. Our study intends to measure the financial burdens of cancer therapy and investigate the link between financial toxicity and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in an advanced lung cancer population.Methods: Patients aged ≥ 18 years with confirmed stage III to IV lung cancer were eligible. The COST questionnaire verified by de Souza et al. was used to identify financial toxicity. Multivariable linear regression analysis with log transformation univariate analysis and Pearson correlations were used to perform the analysis.Results: The majority of the patients (90.8%, n = 138/152) had an annual income of $50,000 ($7,775). The cohort's insurance situation was as follows: 64.5% of the cohort had social insurance, 20.4% had commercial insurance, and 22.0% had both. Patients who were younger age (50–59, P < 0.001), employed but on sick leave, and had lower income reported increased levels of financial toxicity (P < 0.05). The risk factors for high financial toxicity: (i) younger age (50–59), (ii) <1 month of savings, and (iii) being employed but on sick leave. Increased financial toxicity is moderately correlated with a decrease in QoL.Conclusion: Poorer psychological status and specific demographics are linked to increased financial toxicity (lower COST). Financial toxicity has a modest relationship with HRQoL and may have a clear link with HRQoL measurements.

2022 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
Serin Edwin Erayil ◽  
Elise Palzer ◽  
Susan Kline

Staphylococcus aureus (SA) colonization has significant implications in healthcare-associated infections. Here we describe a prospective study conducted in pre-surgical outpatients, done with the aim of identifying demographic and clinical risk factors for SA colonization. We found younger age to be a potential predictor of SA colonization.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Cinzia Costa ◽  
Elena Nardi Cesarini ◽  
Paolo Eusebi ◽  
David Franchini ◽  
Paola Casucci ◽  

Introduction: Post-stroke epilepsy (PSE) requires long-term treatment with antiseizure medications (ASMs). However, epidemiology of PSE and long-term compliance with ASM in this population are still unclear. Here we report, through population-level healthcare administrative data, incidence, risk factors, ASM choice, and ASM switch over long-term follow-up.Materials and Methods: This is a population-based retrospective study using Umbria healthcare administrative database. Population consisted of all patients with acute stroke, either ischaemic or hemorrhagic, between 2013 and 2018. ICD-9-CM codes were implemented to identify people with stroke, while PSE was adjudicated according to previously validated algorithm, such as EEG and ≥1 ASM 7 days after stroke.Results: Overall, among 11,093 incident cases of acute stroke (75.9% ischemic), 275 subjects presented PSE, for a cumulative incidence of 2.5%. Patients with PSE were younger (64 vs. 76 years), more frequently presented with hemorrhagic stroke, and had longer hospital stay (15.5 vs. 11.2 days) compared with patients without PSE. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models confirmed that PSE associated with hemorrhagic stroke, younger age, and longer duration of hospital stay. Levetiracetam was the most prescribed ASM (55.3%), followed by valproate and oxcarbazepine. Almost 30% of patients prescribed with these ASMs switched treatment during follow-up, mostly toward non-enzyme-inducing ASMs. About 12% of patients was prescribed ASM polytherapy over follow-up.Conclusions: Post-stroke epilepsy is associated with hemorrhagic stroke, younger age, and longer hospital stay. First ASM is switched every one in three patients, suggesting the need for treatment tailoring in line with secondary prevention.

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