healthcare expenditure
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2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Idris Abdullahi Abdulqadir ◽  
Bello Malam Sa'idu ◽  
Ibrahim Muhammad Adam ◽  
Fatima Binta Haruna ◽  
Mustapha Adamu Zubairu ◽  

PurposeThis article investigates the dynamic implication of healthcare expenditure on economic growth in the selected ten Sub-Saharan African countries over the period 2000–2018.Design/methodology/approachThe study methodology included dynamic heterogenous panel, using mean group and pooled mean group estimators. The investigation of the healthcare expenditure and economic growth nexus was achieved while controlling the effects of investment, savings, labor force and life expectancy via interaction terms.FindingsThe results from linear healthcare expenditure have a significant positive impact on economic growth, while the nonlinear estimates through the interaction terms between healthcare expenditure and investment have a negative statistically significant impact on growth. The marginal effect of healthcare expenditure evaluated at the minimum and maximum level of investment is positive, suggesting the impact of health expenditure on growth does not vary with the level of investments. This result responds to the primary objective of the article.Research limitations/implicationsIn policy terms, the impact of investment on healthcare is essential to addressing future health crises. The impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can never be separated from the shortages or low prioritization of health against other sectors of the economy. The article also provides an insight to policymakers on the demand for policy reform that will boost and make the health sector attractive to both domestic and foreign direct investment.Originality/valueGiven the vulnerability of SSA to the health crisis, there are limited studies to examine this phenomenon and first to address the needed investment priorities to the health sector infrastructure in SSA.

2022 ◽  
pp. 112972982110678
Cameron Thomas Burnett ◽  
Gemma Nicholls ◽  
Amy Swinbank ◽  
Ian Hughes ◽  
Thomas Titus

Background: Cephalic Arch Stenosis (CAS) is a frequently observed complication in brachiocephalic and radiocephalic arteriovenous fistulae (AVF) associated with high morbidity and healthcare expenditure. The predisposing factors and preventative strategies for CAS remain unclear. Our aim was to examine predisposing factors for CAS development in the AVF. Methods: A retrospective case-control study was performed at Gold University Coast Hospital on patients with AVFs created from 2009 to 2018 with ⩾18 months follow-up. CAS was defined as a >50% narrowing on angiographic assessment with clinically significant symptoms (dialysis dysfunction, arm swelling, prolonged bleeding after access). Results: About 187 patients with AVF were included in the analysis (36 brachiocephalic, 151 radiocephalic). CAS developed in 22 of 36 (61%) of brachiocephalic AVF and 9 of 151 (6%) of radiocephalic AVFs. Brachiocephalic AVF were ⩾12 times more likely to develop CAS than radiocephalic AVF (Hazard Ratio (HR) 12.7, 95% CI [5.6–28.3], p < 0.001). Each 1 mL/min increase in flow rate through the AVF, correlated with a 0.07% increase in the probability of development of CAS (HR 1.0007, 95% CI [1.0001–1.0012], p = 0.011). Brachiocephalic AVFs with CAS were associated with a higher number of interventional procedures per access-year compared with their non-CAS counterparts (Median [Interquartile range]: 1.76 [0.74, 3.97] vs 0.41 [0.27, 0.67], p = 0.003). Conclusion: Brachiocephalic AVF with higher access flow rates are more likely to develop CAS and earlier than radiocephalic AVF, and in a dose dependent fashion. AVF flow rate is a major factor in CAS development within brachiocephalic AVF and has potential utility in surveillance thresholds for prophylactic blood flow reduction procedures. AVFs with CAS are associated with a greater number of interventional procedures per access-year, heralding higher patient morbidity and healthcare expenditure. Further prospective studies will help define an AVF access flow rate threshold in the implementation of prophylactic strategies for CAS.

Healthcare ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 101
Jamiil Jeetoo ◽  
Vishal Chandr Jaunky

A free universal healthcare provision exists in Mauritius. Yet the share of out-of-pocket healthcare expenditure out of total household expenditure has been growing over time. This study estimates income elasticity of out-of-pocket healthcare expenditure using Mauritian household data within an Engel curve framework. In the absence of longitudinal data on out-of-pocket healthcare expenditure patterns, the study proposes the application of the pseudo-panel approach using cross-sectional Household Budget Survey waves from 1996/97 to 2017. Income elasticity of out-of-pocket healthcare expenditure is estimated to be 0.938, which is just below unity. This implies that out-of-pocket healthcare demand is not considered to be a luxury, but a necessity in Mauritius. In order to see the differences in income elasticities by income groups, separate regressions are estimated for each income quartile over different years. The results indicate that income elasticities of out-of-pocket healthcare expenditure vary non-monotonically.

Healthcare ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 78
Haruki Ueda ◽  
Hideyuki Arima ◽  
Tokumi Kanemura ◽  
Masao Koda ◽  
Mitsuru Yagi ◽  

(1) Background: Despite the number of complicated and expensive spine surgery procedures maintained by the national health insurance system in Japan, until now there has been no large-scale multicenter clinical database for this field to understand and improve healthcare expenditure and treatment outcomes. The purpose of this report is to announce the establishment and methodology of a nationwide registry system for spinal instrumentation surgeries by the Japanese Spinal Instrumentation Society (JSIS), and to report the progress over the first 1.5 years of this database’s operation. (2) Methods: The JSIS recently produced an online database with an electronic server. The collected information included patient background, surgery information, and early complications of primary and revision cases. Analysis included data from February 2018, when registration began, to August 2019. (3) Results: As of August 2019, 73 facilities have completed the required paperwork to start, and 55 facilities have registered cases. Of the total 5456 registered cases, 4852 were valid and 2511 were completed. (4) Conclusions: JSIS-DB, the nationwide web-based registry system for spinal instrumentation surgery in Japan, was launched for the purpose of research, healthcare policy regulation, and improved patient care, and its methodology and progress in the first 1.5 years are reported in this study.

Israel Júnior Borges do Nascimento ◽  
Ana Luíza Matos de Oliveira ◽  
Paulo Henrique Costa Diniz ◽  
Maria de Fatima Leite ◽  
Graziella Lage Oliveira

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Claudia Dziegielewski ◽  
Robert Talarico ◽  
Haris Imsirovic ◽  
Danial Qureshi ◽  
Yasmeen Choudhri ◽  

Abstract Background Healthcare expenditure within the intensive care unit (ICU) is costly. A cost reduction strategy may be to target patients accounting for a disproportionate amount of healthcare spending, or high-cost users. This study aims to describe high-cost users in the ICU, including health outcomes and cost patterns. Methods We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study of patients with ICU admissions in Ontario from 2011 to 2018. Patients with total healthcare costs in the year following ICU admission (including the admission itself) in the upper 10th percentile were defined as high-cost users. We compared characteristics and outcomes including length of stay, mortality, disposition, and costs between groups. Results Among 370,061 patients included, 37,006 were high-cost users. High-cost users were 64.2 years old, 58.3% male, and had more comorbidities (41.2% had ≥3) when likened to non-high cost users (66.1 years old, 57.2% male, 27.9% had ≥3 comorbidities). ICU length of stay was four times greater for high-cost users compared to non-high cost users (22.4 days, 95% confidence interval [CI] 22.0–22.7 days vs. 5.56 days, 95% CI 5.54–5.57 days). High-cost users had lower in-hospital mortality (10.0% vs.14.2%), but increased dispositioning outside of home (77.4% vs. 42.2%) compared to non-high-cost users. Total healthcare costs were five-fold higher for high-cost users ($238,231, 95% CI $237,020–$239,442) compared to non-high-cost users ($45,155, 95% CI $45,046–$45,264). High-cost users accounted for 37.0% of total healthcare costs. Conclusion High-cost users have increased length of stay, lower in-hospital mortality, and higher total healthcare costs when compared to non-high-cost users. Further studies into cost patterns and predictors of high-cost users are necessary to identify methods of decreasing healthcare expenditure.

2021 ◽  
Vol 17 (S10) ◽  
Rei Ono ◽  
Kiyomasa Nakatsuka ◽  
Kazuaki Uchida ◽  
Haruhisa Fukuda

2021 ◽  
Vol Publish Ahead of Print ◽  
Robert N. Goldstone ◽  
Jianying Zhang ◽  
Caitlin Stafford ◽  
Liliana Bordeianou ◽  
Hiroko Kunitake ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 1 (11) ◽  
pp. e0000057
Oladimeji Akeem Bolarinwa ◽  
Soter Ameh ◽  
Caleb Ochimana ◽  
Abayomi Olabayo Oluwasanu ◽  
Okello Samson ◽  

Willingness and ability to pay for insurance that would cover primary healthcare services has not been evaluated consistently in different African communities. We conducted a cross-sectional community health survey and examined willingness and ability to pay in 3676 adults in seven communities in four countries: Nigeria, Tanzania, Uganda and Kenya. We used an open-ended contingency valuation method to estimate willingness to pay and examined ability to pay indirectly by calculating the ratio of healthcare expenditure to total household income. Slightly more than three quarters (78.8%) of participants were willing to pay for a health insurance scheme, and just a little above half (54.7%) were willing to pay for all household members. Across sites, median amount willing to pay was $2 per person per month. A little above half (57.6%) of households in Nigeria were able to pay the premium. The main predictors of likelihood of being unwilling to pay for the health insurance scheme were increasing age [aOR 0.99 (95% CI 0.98, 1.00)], being female [0.68 (0.51, 0.92], single [0.32 (0.21, 0.49)], unemployment [0.54 (0.34, 0.85)], being enrolled in another health insurance scheme [0.45 (0.28, 0.74)] and spending more on healthcare [1.00 (0.99, 1.00)]. But being widow [2.31 (1.30, 4.10)] and those with primary and secondary education [2.23 (1.54, 3.22)] had increased likelihood of being willing to pay for health insurance scheme. Retired respondents [adjusted mean difference $-3.79 (-7.56, -0.02)], those with primary or secondary education [$-3.05 (-5.42, -0.68)] and those with high healthcare expenditure [$0.02 (0.00, 0.04)] predicted amount willing to pay for health insurance scheme. The willingness to pay for health insurance scheme is high among the seven communities studied in East and West Africa with socio-demography, economic and healthcare cost as main predictive factors.

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