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Chemosphere ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 289 ◽  
pp. 133186
Jonnathan Cabrera ◽  
Yexin Dai ◽  
Muhammad Irfan ◽  
Yang Li ◽  
Felix Gallo ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
He Zhenpeng ◽  
Zhou Jiaxing ◽  
Xin Jia ◽  
Yang Chengquan ◽  
Li Baichun

Abstract The present work reports the influence of the 1.5-stage turbine flow field by the front and aft rim seal flow. The interaction between the front and aft purge flow and the mainstream of a 1.5-stage turbine was numerically simulated, and the influence of the front and aft purge flow on the downstream vane was analyzed separately. The results show that the front purge flow is distributed at the higher radius of second vane inlet, which changes the position of the blade hub secondary flows, and the aft purge flow is distributed at the low radius. The purge flow at different locations in the aft cavity exit forms shear induced vortex, pressure and suction side legs of the egress, which converges with the suction and pressure side legs of the horse vortex to form vane hub passage vortex. The increased purge flow rate in both the front and aft cavities significantly increases the sealing effectiveness of the rim seal, but also causes a reduction in turbine efficiency. The combined effect of the front and aft purge flow reduces the turbine efficiency of the end-wall structure by 0.3619, 0.9062, 1.5004, 2.0188 and 2.509% at IR = 0, IR = 0.5%, IR = 0.9%, IR = 1.3% and IR = 1.7%.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 889
Marek Milanowski ◽  
Alaa Subr ◽  
Stanisław Parafiniuk

The use of worn-out agricultural nozzles in pesticide application has a negative effect on the efficiency and cost of the application process. It also has an effect on environmental pollution due to an excessive amount of pesticide being applied when spraying with worn-out nozzles. In this paper, the resistance to wear of three different internal design hydraulic nozzles was ascertained. Changes in the flow rate and spray distribution as a result of this wear were also investigated. The wear test was done inside a closed system, and it was accelerated using an abrasive material to generate 100 h of wear. The tested nozzles were the Turbo TeeJet (TT)-twin chambered, Turbo Twinjet (TTj60)-dual outlet, and Drift Guard (DG)-pre-orifice. Wear rate, flow rate, and the virtual coefficient of variation (CVv) were measured at different wear intervals. The results showed that the TTj60 type was the most resistant to wear, followed by the TT type and DG. The latter two types showed an increase in the flow rate only in the first 45 h of wear. Virtual coefficient of variation (CVv) values were less than 10% after finishing the test (after 100 h of wear) for the three types of nozzles, which are acceptable values according to International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 16122-2, 2015.

Aslannif Roslan ◽  
Faten Aris A ◽  
Afif Ashari ◽  
Abdul Shaparudin A ◽  

Background: Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacements (TAVR) has become widespread throughout the world. To date there are no echocardiographic study of TAVR patients from Southeast Asia (SEA). We sought to evaluate 1) changes in echocardiographic and strain values pre and post TAVR 2) relationship between aortic stenosis (AS) severity and strain values, 3) left ventricle geometry in severe AS 4) relationship of flow rate to dimensionless index (DVI) and acceleration time (AT) and 5) effect of strains on outcome. Methods: Retrospective study of 112 TAVR patients in our center from 2009 to 2020. The echocardiographic and strain images pre (within 1 months), post (day after) and 6 months post TAVR were analyzed by expert echocardiographer. Results: The ejection fraction (EF) increased at 6 months (53.02 ± 12.12% to 56.35 ± 9.00%) (p=0.044). Interventricular septal thickness in diastole (IVSd) decreased (1.27 ± 0.21cm to 1.21 ± 0.23cm) (p=0.038) and left ventricle internal dimension in diastole (LVIDd) decreased from 4.77 ± 0.64cm to 4.49 ± 0.65cm (p = 0.001). No changes in stroke volume index (SVI pre vs 6 months p =0.187), but the flow rate increases (217.80 ± 57.61mls/s to 251.94 ± 69.59mls/s, p<0.001). Global Longitudinal Strain (GLS) improved from -11.44 ± 4.23% to -13.94 ± 3.72% (p <0.001), Left Atrial Reservoir strain (Lar-S) increased from 17.44 ± 9.16% to 19.60 ± 8.77% (p=0.033). 8 patients (7.5%) had IVSd < 1.0cm, and 4 patients (3.7%) had normal left ventricle (LV) geometry. There was linear relationship between IVSd and mean PG (r=0.208, p=0.031), between GLS to aortic valve area (AVA) and aortic valve area index (AVAi) (r = – 0.305, p=0.001 and r= – 0.316, p = 0.001). There was also relationship between AT (r=-0.20, p=0.04) and DVI (r=0.35, p< 0.001) with flow rate. Patients who died late (after 6 months) had lower GLS at 6 months. (Alive; -13.94 ± 3.72% vs Died; -12.43 ± 4.19%, p= 0.001) Conclusion: At 6 months TAVR cause reverse remodeling of the LV with reduction in IVSd, LVIDd and improvement in GLS and LAr-S. There is linear relationship between GLS and AVA and between IVSd and AVA.

Membranes ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 94
Chi-Yuan Lee ◽  
Fang-Bor Weng ◽  
Chin-Yuan Yang ◽  
Chun-Wei Chiu ◽  
Shubham-Manoj Nawale

During the electrochemical reaction of a high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell (HT-PEMFC), (in this paper HT-PEMFC means operating in the range of 120 to 200 °C) the inhomogeneity of temperature, flow rate, and pressure in the interior is likely to cause the reduction of ion conductivity or thermal stability weight loss of proton exchange membrane materials, and it is additionally likely to cause uneven fuel distribution, thereby affecting the working performance and service life of the HT-PEMFC. This study used micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) technology to develop a flexible three-in-one microsensor which is resistant to high temperature electrochemical environments; we selected appropriate materials and process parameters to protect the microsensor from failure or damage under long-term tests. The proposed method can monitor the local temperature, flow rate, and pressure distribution in HT-PEMFC in real time.

N.D. Iliinov ◽  
A.M. Mazhitov ◽  
A.B. Allaberdin ◽  
K.V. Vazhdaev

Currently, many underground mines are revising their design solutions to increase their production capacity. This tendency is explained by the decreasing ore grades, as well as by the extensive introduction of mechanization in underground mining operations that has improved the output of mobile equipment by increasing the box capacity and engine power. Dieselpowered mobile vehicles are the most common in underground mining practice. The advantages of such engines are obvious as they generate more power than other types of engines. However, the high air demand for mine ventilation limits their application. This is associated with the need to increase the cross-sections of permanent mine workings in order to comply with the standard air flow rate with account of the increased ventilation capacity along with an increase in the inventory of mobile equipment in order to ensure the specified output of the mine. The specific features of mining operations are defined by the stage-wise character of commissioning various blocks of the deposit. Managing of production and development works provides an opportunity to ventilate the mine sections due to their consecutive commissioning, locally, with an isolated stream of air by means of mine workings that do not have the intersection of air streams. This provides a reduction of critical path of air travel up to 30% and reduction of the general mine ventilating pressure drop by at least 20% at constant air flow rate. The results of the work can be used in designing the ventilation system of underground mines both under construction and in operation.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2 (1) ◽  
pp. 38-43
Jun-ichi Ono ◽  
Takushi Oiwa ◽  
Yasuo Ogasawara ◽  
Seiichi Mochizuki

Background: In recent years, many reports have investigated the usefulness of brachial artery blood flow (BAF) measured by ultrasonography as an evaluation index for the vascular access (VA) stenosis of hemodialysis patients. However, the mechanism of VA dysfunction, despite BAF being higher than the preset blood flow, has not been clarified to date. Methods: The relationship between actual blood-removal flow and recirculation rate with decreasing VA flow was examined using a VA flow path model and pure water as a model fluid. The blood-flow rate was set at 180 mL/min, and the set VA flow rate was lowered stepwise from 350 to 50 mL/min. VA flow rate, blood-removal flow rate, and flow waveform measured between two needle-puncture sites were recorded, and then the actual blood-removal flow rate and recirculation rate were calculated. Results: Recirculation was observed at a VA flow rate < 300 mL/min. The recirculation was due to the VA flow rate, which was transiently reduced to the level below the blood-removal flow rate, resulting in backflow. In contrast, no decrease in the actual blood-removal flow rate was observed. Conclusion: It is suggested that the mechanism of the VA dysfunction, despite the BAF being higher than the preset blood-flow rate, was due to the diastolic BAF being lower than the blood-removal flow rate.

Energies ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 583
Suleyman Emre Ak ◽  
Sertac Cadirci

In this study, the effect of suction flow control on a centrifugal compressor at operation and stall flow rates was investigated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The compressor geometry was reconstructed from available open source profile data and the CFD analyses have been performed on this geometry using the appropriate mesh. To validate the CFD results, the compressor performance line was acquired and compared with the experimental results obtained at the design rotational speed. Then, suction flow control was employed at various suction slot positions with different suction flow rates to improve the performance of the compressor at operation and stall flow rates. As a result of the suction flow control trials, 0.85% increase in pressure ratio and 0.8% increase in adiabatic efficiency were achieved while the compressor was running at operation flow rate. The performance improvements corresponding to the stall flow rate of the compressor were 2.5% increase in pressure ratio and 2% increase in adiabatic efficiency.

2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Ridvan Oruc ◽  
Ozlem Sahin ◽  
Tolga Baklacioglu

Purpose The purpose of this paper is to create a new fuel flow rate model using cuckoo search algorithm (CSA) for the descending stage of the flight. Design/methodology/approach Using the actual flight data record data of the B737-800 aircraft, a new fuel flow rate model has been developed for this aircraft type. The created model is to predict the fuel flow rate with high accuracy depending on the altitude and true airspeed. In addition, the CSA fuel flow rate model was used to calculate the fuel consumption for the point merge system, which is used for combining the initial approach to the final approach at Istanbul Airport, the largest airport of Turkey. Findings As a result of the analysis, the correlation coefficient value is found as 0.996858 for Flight 1, 0.998548 for Flight 2, 0.995363 and 0.997351 for Flight 3 and Flight 4, respectively. The values that are so close to 1 indicate that the model predicts the real fuel flow rate data with high accuracy. Practical implications This model is considered to be useful in air traffic management decision support systems, aircraft performance models, models used for trajectory prediction and strategies used by the aviation community to reduce fuel consumption and related emissions. Originality/value The importance of this study lies in the fact that to the best of the authors’ knowledge, it is the first fuel flow rate model developed using CSA for the descent stage in the existing literature; the data set used is real values.

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