Flow Rate
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-26
V. S. R. Annapareddy ◽  
T. Bore ◽  
M. Bajodek ◽  
A. Scheuermann

This letter proposes semi-analytical methods to obtain the local permeability for granular soils based on indirect measurements of the local porosity profile in a large coaxial cell permeameter using spatial time domain reflectometry. The porosity profile is used to obtain the local permeability using the modified Kozeny-Carman and Katz-Thompson equations, which incorporated an effective particle diameter that accounted for particle migration within the permeameter. The profiles of the local permeability obtained from the proposed methods are compared with experimentally obtained permeability distributions using pressure measurements and flow rate. The permeabilities obtained with the proposed methods are comparable with the experimentally obtained permeabilities and are within one order of magnitude deviation, which is an acceptable range for practical applications.

2022 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
He Zhenpeng ◽  
Zhou Jiaxing ◽  
Xin Jia ◽  
Yang Chengquan ◽  
Li Baichun

Abstract The present work reports the influence of the 1.5-stage turbine flow field by the front and aft rim seal flow. The interaction between the front and aft purge flow and the mainstream of a 1.5-stage turbine was numerically simulated, and the influence of the front and aft purge flow on the downstream vane was analyzed separately. The results show that the front purge flow is distributed at the higher radius of second vane inlet, which changes the position of the blade hub secondary flows, and the aft purge flow is distributed at the low radius. The purge flow at different locations in the aft cavity exit forms shear induced vortex, pressure and suction side legs of the egress, which converges with the suction and pressure side legs of the horse vortex to form vane hub passage vortex. The increased purge flow rate in both the front and aft cavities significantly increases the sealing effectiveness of the rim seal, but also causes a reduction in turbine efficiency. The combined effect of the front and aft purge flow reduces the turbine efficiency of the end-wall structure by 0.3619, 0.9062, 1.5004, 2.0188 and 2.509% at IR = 0, IR = 0.5%, IR = 0.9%, IR = 1.3% and IR = 1.7%.

Aslannif Roslan ◽  
Faten Aris A ◽  
Afif Ashari ◽  
Abdul Shaparudin A ◽  

Background: Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacements (TAVR) has become widespread throughout the world. To date there are no echocardiographic study of TAVR patients from Southeast Asia (SEA). We sought to evaluate 1) changes in echocardiographic and strain values pre and post TAVR 2) relationship between aortic stenosis (AS) severity and strain values, 3) left ventricle geometry in severe AS 4) relationship of flow rate to dimensionless index (DVI) and acceleration time (AT) and 5) effect of strains on outcome. Methods: Retrospective study of 112 TAVR patients in our center from 2009 to 2020. The echocardiographic and strain images pre (within 1 months), post (day after) and 6 months post TAVR were analyzed by expert echocardiographer. Results: The ejection fraction (EF) increased at 6 months (53.02 ± 12.12% to 56.35 ± 9.00%) (p=0.044). Interventricular septal thickness in diastole (IVSd) decreased (1.27 ± 0.21cm to 1.21 ± 0.23cm) (p=0.038) and left ventricle internal dimension in diastole (LVIDd) decreased from 4.77 ± 0.64cm to 4.49 ± 0.65cm (p = 0.001). No changes in stroke volume index (SVI pre vs 6 months p =0.187), but the flow rate increases (217.80 ± 57.61mls/s to 251.94 ± 69.59mls/s, p<0.001). Global Longitudinal Strain (GLS) improved from -11.44 ± 4.23% to -13.94 ± 3.72% (p <0.001), Left Atrial Reservoir strain (Lar-S) increased from 17.44 ± 9.16% to 19.60 ± 8.77% (p=0.033). 8 patients (7.5%) had IVSd < 1.0cm, and 4 patients (3.7%) had normal left ventricle (LV) geometry. There was linear relationship between IVSd and mean PG (r=0.208, p=0.031), between GLS to aortic valve area (AVA) and aortic valve area index (AVAi) (r = – 0.305, p=0.001 and r= – 0.316, p = 0.001). There was also relationship between AT (r=-0.20, p=0.04) and DVI (r=0.35, p< 0.001) with flow rate. Patients who died late (after 6 months) had lower GLS at 6 months. (Alive; -13.94 ± 3.72% vs Died; -12.43 ± 4.19%, p= 0.001) Conclusion: At 6 months TAVR cause reverse remodeling of the LV with reduction in IVSd, LVIDd and improvement in GLS and LAr-S. There is linear relationship between GLS and AVA and between IVSd and AVA.

N.D. Iliinov ◽  
A.M. Mazhitov ◽  
A.B. Allaberdin ◽  
K.V. Vazhdaev

Currently, many underground mines are revising their design solutions to increase their production capacity. This tendency is explained by the decreasing ore grades, as well as by the extensive introduction of mechanization in underground mining operations that has improved the output of mobile equipment by increasing the box capacity and engine power. Dieselpowered mobile vehicles are the most common in underground mining practice. The advantages of such engines are obvious as they generate more power than other types of engines. However, the high air demand for mine ventilation limits their application. This is associated with the need to increase the cross-sections of permanent mine workings in order to comply with the standard air flow rate with account of the increased ventilation capacity along with an increase in the inventory of mobile equipment in order to ensure the specified output of the mine. The specific features of mining operations are defined by the stage-wise character of commissioning various blocks of the deposit. Managing of production and development works provides an opportunity to ventilate the mine sections due to their consecutive commissioning, locally, with an isolated stream of air by means of mine workings that do not have the intersection of air streams. This provides a reduction of critical path of air travel up to 30% and reduction of the general mine ventilating pressure drop by at least 20% at constant air flow rate. The results of the work can be used in designing the ventilation system of underground mines both under construction and in operation.

2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Ridvan Oruc ◽  
Ozlem Sahin ◽  
Tolga Baklacioglu

Purpose The purpose of this paper is to create a new fuel flow rate model using cuckoo search algorithm (CSA) for the descending stage of the flight. Design/methodology/approach Using the actual flight data record data of the B737-800 aircraft, a new fuel flow rate model has been developed for this aircraft type. The created model is to predict the fuel flow rate with high accuracy depending on the altitude and true airspeed. In addition, the CSA fuel flow rate model was used to calculate the fuel consumption for the point merge system, which is used for combining the initial approach to the final approach at Istanbul Airport, the largest airport of Turkey. Findings As a result of the analysis, the correlation coefficient value is found as 0.996858 for Flight 1, 0.998548 for Flight 2, 0.995363 and 0.997351 for Flight 3 and Flight 4, respectively. The values that are so close to 1 indicate that the model predicts the real fuel flow rate data with high accuracy. Practical implications This model is considered to be useful in air traffic management decision support systems, aircraft performance models, models used for trajectory prediction and strategies used by the aviation community to reduce fuel consumption and related emissions. Originality/value The importance of this study lies in the fact that to the best of the authors’ knowledge, it is the first fuel flow rate model developed using CSA for the descent stage in the existing literature; the data set used is real values.

Energies ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 583
Suleyman Emre Ak ◽  
Sertac Cadirci

In this study, the effect of suction flow control on a centrifugal compressor at operation and stall flow rates was investigated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The compressor geometry was reconstructed from available open source profile data and the CFD analyses have been performed on this geometry using the appropriate mesh. To validate the CFD results, the compressor performance line was acquired and compared with the experimental results obtained at the design rotational speed. Then, suction flow control was employed at various suction slot positions with different suction flow rates to improve the performance of the compressor at operation and stall flow rates. As a result of the suction flow control trials, 0.85% increase in pressure ratio and 0.8% increase in adiabatic efficiency were achieved while the compressor was running at operation flow rate. The performance improvements corresponding to the stall flow rate of the compressor were 2.5% increase in pressure ratio and 2% increase in adiabatic efficiency.

Polymers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 308
Yajun Chen ◽  
Xingde Wu ◽  
Mengqi Li ◽  
Lijun Qian ◽  
Hongfu Zhou

The addition of intumescent flame retardant to PLA can greatly improve the flame retardancy of the material and inhibit the dripping, but the major drawback is the adverse impact of the mechanical properties of the material. In this study, we found that the flame retardant and mechanical properties of the materials can be improved simultaneously by constructing a cross-linked structure. Firstly, a cross-linking flame-retardant PLA structure was designed by adding 0.9 wt% DCP and 0.3 wt% TAIC. After that, different characterization methods including torque, melt flow rate, molecular weight and gel content were used to clarify the formation of crosslinking structures. Results showed that the torque of 0.9DCP/0.3TAIC/FRPLA increased by 307% and the melt flow rate decreased by 77.8%. The gel content of 0.9DCP/0.3TAIC/FRPLA was 30.8%, indicating the formation of cross-linked structures. Then, the mechanical properties and flame retardant performance were studied. Results showed that, compared with FRPLA, the tensile strength, elongation at break and impact strength of 0.9DCP/0.3TAIC/FRPLA increased by 34.8%, 82.6% and 42.9%, respectively. The flame retardancy test results showed that 0.9DCP/0.3TAIC/FRPLA had a very high LOI (the limiting oxygen index) value of 39.2% and passed the UL94 V-0 level without dripping. Finally, the crosslinking reaction mechanism, flame retardant mechanism and the reasons for the improvement of mechanical properties were studied and described.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-15
Pranay Seshadri ◽  
Andrew Duncan ◽  
George Thorne

Abstract This paper introduces the Bayesian mass average and details its computation. Owing to the complexity of flow in an engine and the limited instrumentation and the precision of the sensor apparatus used, it is difficult to rigorously calculate mass averages. Building upon related work, this paper views any thermodynamic quantity's spatial variation at an axial plane in an engine (or a rig) as a Gaussian random field. In cases where the mass flow rate is constant in the circumferential direction but can be expressed via a polynomial or spline radially, this paper presents an analytical calculation of the Bayesian mass average. In cases where the mass flow rate itself can be expressed as a Gaussian random field, a sampling procedure is presented to calculate the Bayesian mass average. Examples of the calculation of the Bayesian mass average for temperature are presented, including with a real engine case study where velocity profiles are inferred from stagnation pressure measurements.

Membranes ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 83
Leyla Gazigil ◽  
Eren Er ◽  
O. Erdem Kestioğlu ◽  
Taner Yonar

In this study, it is aimed to investigate the potential of electrodialysis bipolar membrane (EDBM) systems for the recovery of the concentrate originating from an organized industrial estate (OIE) wastewater treatment system with reverse osmosis (RO). Acids and bases were obtained from a pilot-scale treatment plant as a result of the research. Furthermore, the sustainability and affordability of acids and bases obtained by EDBM systems were investigated. Six cycles were carried out in continuous-flow mode with the EDBM system as batch cycles in the disposal of the concentrate and the production of acids and bases with the EDBM system. For each cycle, the EDBM system was operated for 66, 48, 66, and 80 min, respectively, and the last two cycles were operated for a total of 165 min (70 + 90) with 5 min of waiting. In the EDBM system, a working method was determined such that the cycle flow rate was 180 L/hour, energy to be given to the system was 25 V, and the working pressure was in the range of 0.8–2.5 bar. In the six cycles with the EDBM system, the concentrate, acid and base, conductivity, pH, and pressure increase values were investigated depending on time. Throughout all these studies, the cycles were continued over the products formed in the acid and base chamber. As a result of all the cycles, acid (HCl) production at a level of 1.44% and base (NaOH) production at a level of 2% were obtained.

2022 ◽  
Svetlana Aleksandrovna Evdokimova ◽  
Vera Stanislavovna Nokhaeva ◽  
Boris Alekseevich Karetkin ◽  
Irina Vasilievna Shakir ◽  
Viktor Ivanovich Panfilov

In this study, the ability of a probioticstrain (BifidobacteriumadolescentisATCC 15703) to inhibit the growth of the common food contaminantBacilluscereusATCC 9634was studied, both individually and as part of a synbiotic with FOS during batch or continuous fermentation (flow fermentation). The conditions of the flow fermentation corresponded to the parameters of the human large intestine: maintaining a pH of 6.8; anaerobiosis; and a medium flow rate of 0.04 h−1. Bifidobacteria and bacilli were co-cultivated on a prebiotic carbohydrate substrate (10 g/L) and the prebiotic was replaced with glucose (10 g/L).The results of the batch and flow fermentation were compared.The synbiotic efficacy of the probioticBif. adolescentisand the prebiotic FOSagainst the common food contaminantBac. cereuswas shown for all conditions. Fermentation of a pure culture of bifidobacteria with varying prebiotic concentrations (2, 5, 10, 15 and 20 g/L) was carried out to study the state of dynamic balance. It was demonstrated that 48 hours is enough to achieve stable dynamic balance.Prebiotics were co-cultivated with varying carbohydrate concentrations of 5, 10, and 15 g/L.The results showed that increasing the prebiotic concentration increased the duration of the lag-phase and reduced the final number of bacilli. Keywords: probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, gastrointestinal tract modeling, antagonism, co-culture fermentation

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