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2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
David Goettler ◽  
Patricia Niekler ◽  
Johannes G. Liese ◽  
Andrea Streng

Abstract Introduction Detailed and up-to-date data on the epidemiology and healthcare costs of Influenza are fundamental for public health decision-making. We analyzed inpatient data on Influenza-associated hospitalizations (IAH), selected complications and risk factors, and their related direct costs for Germany during ten consecutive years. Methods We conducted a retrospective cost-of-illness study on patients with laboratory-confirmed IAH (ICD-10-GM code J09/J10 as primary diagnosis) by ICD-10-GM-based remote data query using the Hospital Statistics database of the German Federal Statistical Office. Clinical data and associated direct costs of hospital treatment are presented stratified by demographic and clinical variables. Results Between January 2010 to December 2019, 156,097 persons were hospitalized due to laboratory-confirmed Influenza (J09/J10 primary diagnosis). The annual cumulative incidence was low in 2010, 2012 and 2014 (1.3 to 3.1 hospitalizations per 100,000 persons) and high in 2013 and 2015-2019 (12.6 to 60.3). Overall direct per patient hospitalization costs were mean (SD) 3521 EUR (± 8896) and median (IQR) 1805 EUR (1502; 2694), with the highest mean costs in 2010 (mean 8965 EUR ± 26,538) and the lowest costs in 2012 (mean 2588 EUR ± 6153). Mean costs were highest in 60-69 year olds, and in 50-59, 70-79 and 40-49 year olds; they were lowest in 10-19 year olds. Increased costs were associated with conditions such as diabetes (frequency 15.0%; 3.45-fold increase compared to those without diabetes), adiposity (3.3%; 2.09-fold increase) or immune disorders (5.6%; 1.88-fold increase) and with Influenza-associated complications such as Influenza pneumonia (24.3%; 1.95-fold), bacterial pneumonia (6.3%; 3.86-fold), ARDS (1.2%; 10.90-fold increase) or sepsis (2.3%; 8.30-fold). Estimated overall costs reported for the 10-year period were 549.6 Million euros (95% CI 542.7-556.4 million euros). Conclusion We found that the economic burden of IAH in Germany is substantial, even when considering solely laboratory-confirmed IAH reported as primary diagnosis. The highest costs were found in the elderly, patients with certain underlying risk factors and patients who required advanced life support treatment, and median and mean costs showed considerable variations between single years. Furthermore, there was a relevant burden of disease in middle-aged adults, who are not covered by the current vaccination recommendations in Germany.

2022 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Marije van der Hulst ◽  
Suzanne Polinder ◽  
Rianne Kok ◽  
Peter Prinzie ◽  
Marijke W. de Groot ◽  

Abstract Background Children with low socioeconomic status (SES) have an increased risk of a suboptimal start in life with ensuing higher healthcare costs. This study aims to investigate the effects of individual- (monthly household income) and contextual-level SES (household income and neighborhood deprivation), and perinatal morbidity (preterm birth and small for gestational age ((<10th percentile), SGA)) on healthcare costs in early life (0–3 years of age). Methods Individual-linked data from three national registries (Perinatal Registry Netherlands, Statistics Netherlands, and Healthcare Vektis) were obtained of all children born between 2011 and 2014 (N = 480,471) in the Netherlands. Binomial logistic regression was used to model annual healthcare costs as a function of their household income (per €1000), neighborhood deprivation index (range − 13.26 – 10.70), their perinatal morbidity and demographic characteristics. Annual healthcare cost were dichotomized into low healthcare costs (Q1-Q3 below €1000) and high healthcare costs (Q4 €1000 or higher). Results Children had a median of €295 annual healthcare costs, ranging from €72 to €4299 (5–95%). Binomial logistic regression revealed that for every €1000 decrease in monthly household income, the OR for having high healthcare costs is 0.99 (0.99–0.99). Furthermore, for every one-unit increase in neighborhood deprivation the OR for having high healthcare costs increase 1.02 (1.01–1.02). Finally, the model revealed an OR of 2.55 (2.48–2.61) for preterm born children, and an OR of 1.44 (1.41–1.48) for children SGA, to have high healthcare costs compared to their healthy peers. Conclusion More neighborhood deprivation was directly related to higher healthcare costs in young children. On top of this, lower household income was consistently and independently related to higher healthcare costs. By optimizing conditions for low SES populations, the impact of low SES circumstances on their healthcare costs can be positively influenced. Additionally, policies that influence more timely and appropriate healthcare use in low SES populations can reduce healthcare costs further.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Weiyi Ni ◽  
Wolfgang G. Kunz ◽  
Mayank Goyal ◽  
Lijin Chen ◽  
Yawen Jiang

Abstract Background Although endovascular therapy (EVT) improves clinical outcomes in patients with acute ischemic stroke, the time of EVT initiation significantly influences clinical outcomes and healthcare costs. This study evaluated the impact of EVT treatment delay on cost-effectiveness in China. Methods A model combining a short-term decision tree and long-term Markov health state transition matrix was constructed. For each time window of symptom onset to EVT, the probability of receiving EVT or non-EVT treatment was varied, thereby varying clinical outcomes and healthcare costs. Clinical outcomes and cost data were derived from clinical trials and literature. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio and incremental net monetary benefits were simulated. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed to assess the robustness of the model. The willingness-to-pay threshold per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) was set to ¥71,000 ($10,281). Results EVT performed between 61 and 120 min after the stroke onset was most cost-effective comparing to other time windows to perform EVT among AIS patients in China, with an ICER of ¥16,409/QALY ($2376) for performing EVT at 61–120 min versus the time window of 301–360 min. Each hour delay in EVT resulted in an average loss of 0.45 QALYs and 165.02 healthy days, with an average net monetary loss of ¥15,105 ($2187). Conclusions Earlier treatment of acute ischemic stroke patients with EVT in China increases lifetime QALYs and the economic value of care without any net increase in lifetime costs. Thus, healthcare policies should aim to improve efficiency of pre-hospital and in-hospital workflow processes to reduce the onset-to-puncture duration in China.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (4) ◽  
pp. 541
Hary Abdul Hakim ◽  
Chrisna Bagus Edhita Praja ◽  
Hardianto Djanggih

Artificial intelligence (AI) offers the potential for a great improvement in patient care, both in diagnose and disease treatment, and a consequential reduction in healthcare costs, a part of opportunities and challenge are ahead. The use of AI in medicine was significantly developed in some countries. Indonesia as a modern country also has a great change in promoting the use of AI. The study aims to propose on designing the legislation for the use of AI in Indonesian medical practices. The method used in this research is normative juridical approaches with descriptive analysis. The data used are primary legal material namely the Indonesian Penal Code and Law No. 36 of 2009 on Health Law. Meanwhile, the secondary legal material used are books, journals, and other legal documents. The results show that designing the new legislation as the guidance and basis for the use of AI shall give a good impact on the development of health services as practices among other countries. Moreover, Health Act 2009 clearly supported the use of advance technology’s product in medicine. Yet, the application of AI facilitates interpretation follows with high accuracy and speed for medical diagnoses.

Danielle Berkovic ◽  
Darshini Ayton ◽  
Andrew M. Briggs ◽  
Zanfina Ademi ◽  
Ilana N. Ackerman

2021 ◽  
Vol 104 (12) ◽  
pp. 1953-1958

Objective: Health care costs (HCCs) are a significant concern in developing countries. The authors investigated the healthcare resource utilization (HCRU) and HCCs for patients with COVID-19 based on disease severity and infection site. Materials and Methods: The authors reviewed data from the electronic medical records of COVID-19 patients admitted to the present study hospital between January 2020 and April 2020. The authors used comorbidities and patient characteristics as covariates. Analyses were conducted using simple linear regression and generalized linear regression models with a log-link and gamma distribution. Results: Two hundred two patients had confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. Total costs per patient were 6,626 USD (756 to 45,586). Personal protection equipment costs were the most significant cost for COVID-19 patients with a mean of 3,778 USD. The mean treatment cost per patient was 326 USD. Patients with severe symptoms and lower respiratory tract infection (LRI) had a higher cost and resource utilization value before and after adjusting for covariates. Conclusion: COVID-19 patients with severe symptoms and LRI had higher HCRU. Length of stay, severity of symptoms, and LRI were associated with higher cost of treatment. Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; Healthcare resource utilization; Healthcare costs; Thailand

Claudia Schulz ◽  
Benedikt Becker ◽  
Christopher Netsch ◽  
Thomas R. W. Herrmann ◽  
Andreas J. Gross ◽  

Abstract Purpose Comparisons of ureteroscopy (URS), extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (SWL), and percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) for urolithiasis considering long-term health and economic outcomes based on claims data are rare. Our aim was to analyze URS, SWL, and PCNL regarding complications within 30 days, re-intervention, healthcare costs, and sick leave days within 12 months, and to investigate inpatient and outpatient SWL treatment as the latter was introduced in Germany in 2011. Methods This retrospective cohort study based on German health insurance claims data included 164,203 urolithiasis cases in 2008–2016. We investigated the number of complications within 30 days, as well as time to re-intervention, number of sick leave days and hospital and ambulatory health care costs within a 12-month follow-up period. We applied negative binomial, Cox proportional hazard, gamma and two-part models and adjusted for patient variables. Results Compared to URS cases, SWL and PCNL had fewer 30-day complications, time to re-intervention within 12 months was decreased for SWL and PCNL, SWL and PCNL were correlated with a higher number of sick leave days, and SWL and particularly PCNL were associated with higher costs. SWL outpatients had fewer complications, re-interventions and lower costs than inpatients. This study was limited by the available information in claims data. Conclusion URS cases showed benefits in terms of fewer re-interventions, fewer sick leave days, and lower healthcare costs. Only regarding complications, SWL was superior. This emphasizes URS as the most frequent treatment choice. Furthermore, SWL outpatients showed less costs, fewer complications, and re-interventions than inpatients.

2021 ◽  
Millie D. Long ◽  
Russell D. Cohen ◽  
Timothy W. Smith ◽  
Marco DiBonaventura ◽  
David Gruben ◽  

Background: Biologic therapies are often used in patients with ulcerative colitis who are non-responsive to conventional treatments. However, non-response or loss of response to biologics often occurs, leading to dose escalation, combination therapy, and/or treatment switching. We investigated real-world treatment patterns of biologic therapies among patients with ulcerative colitis in the USA. Methods: This study analyzed data from the IBM® MarketScan® Commercial and Medicare Supplemental Databases (medical/pharmacy claims for >250 million patients in the USA) to identify patients with ulcerative colitis initiating a biologic therapy (adalimumab, infliximab, golimumab, or vedolizumab) with 12 months of follow-up post-initiation. Key measures were patient baseline characteristics, dose escalation (average maintenance dose >20% higher than label), adherence (proportion of days covered), and ulcerative colitis-related healthcare costs in the 12 months following biologic therapy initiation. Results: Of 2,331 patients included in the study (adalimumab [N=1,291], infliximab [N=810], golimumab [N=127], vedolizumab [N=103]), 28.1% used concomitant immunosuppressant therapy within 12 months post-initiation. Overall, 23.6% (adalimumab), 34.8% (infliximab), 9.9% (golimumab), and 39.2% (vedolizumab) of patients dose escalated within 12 months. Patients who dose escalated incurred $20,106 higher total ulcerative colitis-related healthcare costs over 12 months than those who did not. Adherence (covariate-adjusted proportion of days covered) ranged from 0.63 to 0.73, and 39.3% of patients discontinued within 12 months (median treatment duration=112 days). Conclusion: Dose escalation was common, and incurred higher costs, in patients with ulcerative colitis initiating biologic therapies. Sub-optimal adherence and/or discontinuation within 12 months of initiation occurred frequently, highlighting the challenges in managing these patients.

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