transient analysis
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2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (2) ◽  
pp. 269-275
Anderson Ricardo Justo de Araujo ◽  
Jaimis Sajid Leon Colqui ◽  
Walter Luiz Manzi de Azevedo ◽  
Sergio Kurokawa ◽  
Jose Pissolato Filho ◽  

2022 ◽  
Ahmed Elsayed Hegazy ◽  
Mohammed Rashdi

Abstract Pressure transient analysis (PTA) has been used as one of the important reservoir surveillance tools for tight condensate-rich gas fields in Sultanate of Oman. The main objectives of PTA in those fields were to define the dynamic permeability of such tight formations, to define actual total Skin factors for such heavily fractured wells, and to assess impairment due to condensate banking around wellbores. After long production, more objectives became also necessary like assessing impairment due to poor clean-up of fractures placed in depleted layers, assessing newly proposed Massive fracturing strategy, assessing well-design and fracture strategies of newly drilled Horizontal wells, targeting the un-depleted tight layers, and impairment due to halite scaling. Therefore, the main objective of this paper is to address all the above complications to improve well and reservoir modeling for better development planning. In order to realize most of the above objectives, about 21 PTA acquisitions have been done in one of the mature gas fields in Oman, developed by more than 200 fractured wells, and on production for 25 years. In this study, an extensive PTA revision was done to address main issues of this field. Most of the actual fracture dynamic parameters (i.e. frac half-length, frac width, frac conductivity, etc.) have been estimated and compared with designed parameters. In addition, overall wells fracturing responses have been defined, categorized into strong and weak frac performances, proposing suitable interpretation and modeling workflow for each case. In this study, more reasonable permeability values have been estimated for individual layers, improving the dynamic modeling significantly. In addition, it is found that late hook-up of fractured wells leads to very poor fractures clean out in pressure-depleted layers, causing the weak frac performance. In addition, the actual frac parameters (i.e. frac-half-length) found to be much lower than designed/expected before implementation. This helped to improve well and fracturing design and implementation for next vertical and horizontal wells, improving their performances. All the observed PTA responses (fracturing, condensate-banking, Halite-scaling, wells interference) have been matched and proved using sophisticated single and sector numerical simulation models, which have been incorporated into full-field models, causing significant improvements in field production forecasts and field development planning (FDP).

2022 ◽  
Musallam Jaboob ◽  
Ahmed Al Shueili ◽  
Hussien Al Salmi ◽  
Salim Al Hajri ◽  
German Merletti ◽  

Abstract An accurate Mechanical Earth Model (MEM) is of vital importance in tight gas reservoirs where hydraulic fracturing is the only way to produce hydrocarbons economically. The Barik tight gas reservoir is the main target in Khazzan and Ghazeer Fields at the Sultanate of Oman (Rylance et al., 2011). This reservoir consists of multiple low-permeability sandstone layers interbedded with marine shales. A good understanding of the fracture propagation in such a reservoir has a major effect on completion and fracturing design. The MEM derived from sonic logs and calibrated with core data needs to be further validated by independent measurements of the fracturing geometry. Multiple surveillance techniques have been implemented in the Barik reservoir to validate the MEM and to match observations from hydraulic fracturing operations. These techniques include closure interpretation using a wireline deployed formation testing assembly, the use of mini-frac injection tests with deployed bottomhole pressure gauges, execution of post injection time-lapse temperature logging, the injection of radioactive tracers, associated production logging, subsequent pressure transient analysis and other techniques. A cross-disciplinary team worked with multiple sources of data to calibrate the MEM with the purpose of delivering a high-confidence prediction of the created fracture geometry, which honors all available surveillance data. In turn, this validation approach provided a solid basis for optimization of the completion and fracturing design, in order to optimally exploit this challenging reservoir and maximize the economic returns being delivered. For example, combination of stress testing with radioactive tracers provided confidence in stress barriers in this multilayered reservoir. Pressure transient analysis allowed to calibrate mechanical model to match fracturing half-length that is contributing to production. This paper provides extensive surveillance examples and workflows for data analysis. Surveillance of this degree in the same well is uncommon because of the associated time and cost. However, it provides unique value for understanding the target reservoir. This paper demonstrates the Value Of Information (VOI) that can be associated with such surveillance and provides a concrete and practical example that can be used for the justification of future surveillance programs associated with the hydraulic fracturing operations.

2022 ◽  
Sanil Shah

Abstract Numerical study of heat transfer between circular jet arrays and the flat moving surface is carried out. Two jet patterns: inline and staggered, are chosen. Total nine circular jets are used in both jet patterns. The analysis is carried out for steady-state and transient conditions with the turbulent flow of jet fluid. In steady-state analysis, the influence of surface motion on the flow field and heat transfer by the array of jets is analyzed. The surface-to-jet velocity ratio (r) varies from 0 to 2. In transient analysis, the effect of jet pattern on the cooling of hot moving plate is analyzed. The two-equation shear stress transport (SST) k-? turbulence model is used for solving Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations of conservation of mass, momentum, and energy for incompressible turbulent flow. The steady-state analysis shows that surface motion has a significant effect on the flow field and heat transfer. The transient analysis results show that a staggered jet pattern cools the plate more uniformly than an inline jet pattern.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2 (3) ◽  
pp. 196-206
W M U D Wijethunga ◽  
L S H Jayasooriya ◽  
S M J C Subasinghe ◽  
H M P C Kumarihami ◽  
C K Beneragama

Chlorophyll fluorescence (ChlF) is a non-invasive technique that can be potentially used in postharvest research to gain useful information on early responses to postharvest stresses. This study was conducted to validate the application of ChlF transient analysis in determining the postharvest changes in photosynthetic apparatus in three ornamental foliage species, i.e., Cordyline fruticosa ‘Willy’s Gold’ and ‘Rubra’, Dracaena sanderiana ‘White’, and Nephrolepis exaltata. Salicylic acid (100 and 300 mg·L−1), glucose (10 g·L−1), and their combinations were used as holding solutions with control treatment (distilled water) at room temperature (25±2°C). Vase life was evaluated using OJIP analysis. OJIP parameters, i.e., specific energy fluxes per reaction center (ABS/RC, TR/RC, ET/RC, and DI/RC), flux ratios (maximum quantum yield of primary photochemistry-φPo), electron transport efficiency (ψo), and quantum yield of electron transport (φEo), and performance index (PI) were recorded every other day, using a fluorometer (FluorPen 100). Leaf chlorophyll contents of all species and anthocyanin contents of two cordyline cultivars were determined. Data were subjected to ANOVA in a completely randomized design. Mean separation was done by DMRT (p ≤ 0.05). Clear variations in ChlF were observed in every foliage species with the time. OJIP analysis showed species-depended variations. The higher ABS/RC and DI/RC were recorded for D. sanderiana and N. exaltata compared to the PI of those species. At the end of the experiment, the chlorophyll contents were decreased, while anthocyanin contents were increased. Consequently, chlorophyll fluorescence changes in photosynthetic apparatus can be used for the prediction of the postharvest stresses and longevity of cut foliage.

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