surface motion
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2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 336
Chris Marshall ◽  
Henk Pieter Sterk ◽  
Peter J. Gilbert ◽  
Roxane Andersen ◽  
Andrew V. Bradley ◽  

Peatland surface motion is highly diagnostic of peatland condition. Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) can measure this at the landscape scale but requires ground validation. This necessitates upscaling from point to areal measures (80 × 90 m) but is hampered by a lack of data regarding the spatial variability of peat surface motion characteristics. Using a nested precise leveling approach within two areas of upland and low-lying blanket peatland within the Flow Country, Scotland, we examine the multiscale variability of peat surface motion. We then compare this with InSAR timeseries data. We find that peat surface motion varies at multiple scales within blanket peatland with decreasing dynamism with height above the water table e.g., hummocks < lawn < hollows. This trend is dependent upon a number of factors including ecohydrology, pool size/density, peat density, and slope. At the site scale motion can be grouped into central, marginal, and upland peatlands with each showing characteristic amplitude, peak timing, and response to climate events. Ground measurements which incorporate local variability show good comparability with satellite radar derived timeseries. However, current limitations of phase unwrapping in interferometry means that during an extreme drought/event InSAR readings can only qualitatively replicate peat movement in the most dynamic parts of the peatland e.g., pool systems, quaking bog.

2022 ◽  
Sanil Shah

Abstract Numerical study of heat transfer between circular jet arrays and the flat moving surface is carried out. Two jet patterns: inline and staggered, are chosen. Total nine circular jets are used in both jet patterns. The analysis is carried out for steady-state and transient conditions with the turbulent flow of jet fluid. In steady-state analysis, the influence of surface motion on the flow field and heat transfer by the array of jets is analyzed. The surface-to-jet velocity ratio (r) varies from 0 to 2. In transient analysis, the effect of jet pattern on the cooling of hot moving plate is analyzed. The two-equation shear stress transport (SST) k-? turbulence model is used for solving Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations of conservation of mass, momentum, and energy for incompressible turbulent flow. The steady-state analysis shows that surface motion has a significant effect on the flow field and heat transfer. The transient analysis results show that a staggered jet pattern cools the plate more uniformly than an inline jet pattern.

2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (4) ◽  
pp. 7886-7893
Jiateng Wang ◽  
Rongchuan Sun ◽  
Shumei Yu ◽  
Fengfeng Zhang ◽  
Sun Lining

ACS Nano ◽  
2021 ◽  
Chiara Lionello ◽  
Andrea Gardin ◽  
Annalisa Cardellini ◽  
Davide Bochicchio ◽  
Manisha Shivrayan ◽  

Colleen P. Ryan ◽  
Gemma Carolina Bettelani ◽  
Simone Ciotti ◽  
Cesare V. Parise ◽  
Alessandro Moscatelli ◽  

Besides providing information on elementary properties of objects-like texture, roughness, and softness-the sense of touch is also important in building a representation of object movement, and the movement of our hands. Neural and behavioral studies shed light on the mechanisms and limits of our sense of touch in the perception of texture and motion, and of its role in the control of movement of our hands. The interplay between the geometrical and mechanical properties of the touched objects, such as shape and texture, the movement of the hand exploring the object, and the motion felt by touch, will be discussed in this article. Interestingly, the interaction between motion and textures can generate perceptual illusions in touch. For example, the orientation and the spacing of the texture elements on a static surface induces the illusion of surface motion when we move our hand on it or can elicit the perception of a curved trajectory during sliding, straight hand movements. In this work we present a multiperspective view that encompasses both the perceptual and the motor aspects, as well as the response of peripheral and central nerve structures, to analyze and better understand the complex mechanisms underpinning the tactile representation of texture and motion. Such a better understanding of the spatiotemporal features of the tactile stimulus can reveal novel transdisciplinary applications in neuroscience and haptics.

2021 ◽  
Andrew Vincent Bradley ◽  
Roxane Andersen ◽  
Chris Marshall ◽  
Andrew Sowter ◽  
David James Large

Abstract. Better tools for rapid and reliable assessment of global peatland extent and condition are urgently needed to support action to prevent their further decline. Peatland surface motion is a response to changes in the water and gas content of a peat body regulated by the ecology and hydrology of a peatland system. Surface motion is therefore a sensitive measure of ecohydrological condition but has traditionally been impossible to measure at the landscape scale. Here we examine the potential of surface motion metrics derived from InSAR satellite radar to map peatland condition in a blanket bog landscape. We show that the timing of maximum seasonal swelling of the peat is characterized by a bimodal distribution. The first maximum is typical of steeper topographic gradients, peatland margins, degraded peatland and more often associated with ‘shrub’-dominated vegetation communities. The second maximum is typically associated with low topographic gradients often featuring pool systems, and Sphagnum dominated vegetation communities. Specific conditions associated with ‘Sphagnum’ and ‘shrub’ communities are also determined by the amplitude of swelling and average multiannual motion. Peatland restoration currently follows a re-wetting strategy, however our approach highlights that landscape setting appears to determine the optimal endpoint for restoration. Aligning expectation for restoration outcomes with landscape setting might optimise peatland stability and carbon storage. Importantly, deployment of this approach, based on surface motion dynamics, could support peatland mapping and management on a global scale.

2021 ◽  
Po-Yen Liu ◽  
Paula Gabriela Benavidez ◽  
Adriano Campo Bagatin ◽  
Derek Charles Richardson ◽  
Laura Parro

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