invasive technique
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2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (3) ◽  
pp. 0-0

Cardiotocography (CTG) is the widely used cost-effective, non-invasive technique to monitor the fetal heart and mother’s uterine contraction pressure to assess the wellbeing of the fetus. The most important parameters of fetal heart is the baseline upon which the other parameters viz. acceleration, deceleration and variability depend. Accurate classification of the baseline into either normal, bradycardia or tachycardia is thus important to assess the fetal-health. Since visual estimation has its limitations, the authors use various Machine Learning Algorithms to classify the baseline. 110 CTG traces from CTU-UHB dataset, were divided into three subsets using stratified sampling to ensure that the sample is the accurate depiction of the population. The results were analyzed using various statistical methods and compared with the visual estimation by three obstetricians. FURIA provided greatest accuracy of 98.11%. From the analysis of Bland-Altman Plot FURIA was also found to have best agreement with physicians’ estimation.

Shrey Bhagat

Abstract: Face recognition systems are used in practically every industry in this digital age. One of the most widely utilized biometrics is face recognition. It can be used for security, authentication, and identity, among other things. Despite its low accuracy relative to iris and fingerprint identification, it is extensively utilized because it is a contactless and non-invasive technique. Face recognition systems can also be used to track attendance in schools, colleges, and companies. Because the existing manual attendance system is time consuming and difficult to maintain, this system intends to create a class attendance system that employs the concept of face recognition. There’s also the possibility of proxy attendance. As a result, the demand for this system grows. Database development, face detection, face recognition, and attendance updating are the four steps of this system. The photos of the kids in class are used to generate the database. Faces are discovered and recognized from the classroom's live streaming footage. At the end of the session, the attendance will be mailed to the appropriate faculty. Keywords: Smart Attendance System, NFC, RFID, OpenCV, NumPy

2022 ◽  
Eric C Anderson ◽  
Julie Cantelon ◽  
Amanda Holmes ◽  
Grace Giles ◽  
Tad Brunye ◽  

The ability to regulate the intake of unhealthy foods is critical in modern, calorie dense food environments. Frontal areas of the brain, such as the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), are thought to play a central role in cognitive control and emotional regulation. Therefore, increasing activity in the DLPFC may enhance these functions which could improve the ability to reappraise and resist consuming highly palatable but unhealthy foods. One technique for modifying brain activity is transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), a non-invasive technique for modulating neuronal excitability that can influence performance on a range of cognitive tasks. We tested whether tDCS targeting the DLPFC would influence how people perceived highly palatable foods. In the present study, 98 participants were randomly assigned to receive a single session of active tDCS or sham stimulation. While receiving active or sham stimulation, participants viewed images of highly palatable foods and reported how pleasant it would be to eat each food (liking) and how strong their urge was to eat each food (wanting). We found that participants who received active versus sham tDCS stimulation perceived food as less pleasant, but there was no difference in how strong their urge was to eat the foods. Our findings suggest that modulating excitability in the DLPFC influences “liking” but not “wanting” of highly palatable foods. Non-invasive brain stimulation might be a useful technique for influencing the hedonic experience of eating and might have implications for changing food consumption.

2022 ◽  
Anita Yadav ◽  
Neerja Kapoor ◽  
Amin Arif ◽  

Abstract Energy Dispersive X-Ray Microanalysis (EDXMA) has been used as the non-invasive technique on Indian helminthes to explore the role of nematode parasites as bioindicators in the marine ecosystem of Central West coast of India for the first time. The investigation incorporates assertions on the possible benefit of such technology to elucidate bioremediating prospects that could be helpful to establish helminth parasites as a tool representing Bioindicators. The accumulation of Sulphur and Iron were analysed from a raphidascaridoid roundworm, Rostellascaris spinicaudatum (Malhotra and Anas) parasitizing marine catfish, Arius maculatus from the Central west coast of India at Goa. Quantitatively, the cuticle on oral armature comprised as much as ten times more Sulphur than iron content in the roundworm under study. However, only Carbon and Oxygen were detected over caudal papillae, where no metals or other elements were recorded.

2022 ◽  
pp. 152660282110677
Del Tatto Benjamin ◽  
Gogeneata Ioan ◽  
Ohana Mickael ◽  
Fabien Thaveau ◽  
Caillard Sophie ◽  

Introduction: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of polycystic kidney embolization, performed to reduce kidney volume before heterotopic kidney transplantation, as this technique could be an alternative to pretransplant nephrectomy. Materials and Methods: All patients who underwent pretransplant embolization of polycystic kidneys were included in a prospective register from June 2014 to February 2020. All patients underwent computed tomography (CT) scan with volumetric reconstruction (OsiriX, Bernex, Switzerland) before embolization and were then followed up at 3 and 6 months after embolization. Primary outcome was percentage of kidney volume reduction. Secondary outcomes were 30 day mortality and morbidity. Results: Thirty-one embolizations performed on 29 patients (medium age = 55.6; 62.1% male) were included between June 2014 and February 2020. All patients were under dialysis before embolization (9 peritoneal dialysis and 20 hemodialysis). Technical success was observed in 96.8% of cases. Mean procedural time was 65 minutes (range = 35–106 minutes) and mean length of in-hospital stay was 3.8 days (range = 3–6 days). A volume reduction allowing a kidney transplant was obtained for 28 patients (96.5%). The mean volume reduction was 39.9% (range = 6.01–68.2). The main observed complication was postembolization pain in 10 cases (32.2%). One patient needed complementary nephrectomy due to insufficient volume reduction. Twenty-three patients (79.3%) received renal transplant during follow-up with a mean delay of 19.5 month (range = 4–54). Conclusion: Polycystic kidney embolization is an effective and safe minimally invasive technique. It can be proposed as the first-choice technique for kidney transplant recipients as an alternative to pretransplantation nephrectomy.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-9
Aimei Shi ◽  
Huanhuan Ma ◽  
Yinchao Ma

In this paper, a data mining-enabled model is developed to analyze the case-related data of 39 patients with urinary tract injury who underwent laparoscopic surgery in a certain hospital from 2012 to 2017. Statistics on the history and characteristics of the case data summarized and analyzed the causes of urinary tract injury and the urinary system. The relationship between the occurrence of injury and the type of surgery and the treatment and preventive measures taken for urinary tract injury during and after surgery are summarized. The statistical method with SPSS16.0 statistical software was used to analyze the data of this study, and the X2 test was used to compare the rates. The differences of P ≤ 0.05 and P ≤ 0.01 were statistically significant. Laparoscopic surgery in gynecology is a minimally invasive technique, but it is still accompanied by the possibility of complications. During the experimental setup and implementation, we have observed that among 8742 cases of laparoscopic surgery complicated by urinary tract injury, there were 39 cases with a rate of 0.45%. In the past five years, the incidence of urinary tract injury in gynecological surgery in our country has increased year by year, and the number of cases of urinary tract injury has also increased year by year. Through analysis, it is found that the cause of the injury is related to the level of surgery, pelvic adhesion, and energy equipment. Based on the above problems, according to the clinical data of patients with urinary tract injury complicated by gynecological surgery in the hospital, the relevant factors of gynecological surgery complicated by urinary tract injury are analyzed to improve the awareness of urinary tract protection and prevention of injury during the operation and preventive measures are actively taken to avoid medical treatment.

Sophia Knoch ◽  
Mark A. Whiteside ◽  
Joah R. Madden ◽  
Paul E. Rose ◽  
Tim W. Fawcett

In group-living vertebrates, dominance status often covaries with physiological measurements (e.g. glucocorticoid levels), but it is unclear how dominance is linked to dynamic changes in physiological state over a shorter, behavioural timescale. In this observational study, we recorded spontaneous aggression among captive juvenile pheasants ( Phasianus colchicus ) alongside infrared thermographic measurements of their external temperature, a non-invasive technique previously used to examine stress responses in non-social contexts, where peripheral blood is redirected towards the body core. We found low but highly significant repeatability in maximum head temperature, suggesting individually consistent thermal profiles, and some indication of lower head temperatures in more active behavioural states (e.g. walking compared to resting). These individual differences were partly associated with sex, females being cooler on average than males, but unrelated to body size. During pairwise aggressive encounters, we observed a non-monotonic temperature change, with head temperature dropping rapidly immediately prior to an attack and increasing rapidly afterwards, before returning to baseline levels. This nonlinear pattern was similar for birds in aggressor and recipient roles, but aggressors were slightly hotter on average. Our findings show that aggressive interactions induce rapid temperature changes in dominants and subordinates alike, and highlight infrared thermography as a promising tool for investigating the physiological basis of pecking orders in galliforms. This article is part of the theme issue ‘The centennial of the pecking order: current state and future prospects for the study of dominance hierarchies’.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Toni Wendler ◽  
Melanie Edel ◽  
Robert Möbius ◽  
Johannes Fakler ◽  
Georg Osterhoff ◽  

Abstract Background Intraoperative proximal femoral fractures (IPFF) are relevant complications during total hip arthroplasty. Fixation using cerclage wires (CW) represents a minimally-invasive technique to address these fractures through the same surgical approach. The goal of treatment is to mobilise the patient as early as possible, which requires high primary stability. This study aimed to compare different cerclage wire configurations fixing IPFF with regard to biomechanical primary stability. Methods Standardised IPFF (type II, Modified Mallory Classification) were created in human fresh frozen femora and were fixed either by two or three CW (1.6 mm, stainless steel). All cadaveric specimens (n = 42) were randomised to different groups (quasi-static, dynamic) or subgroups (2 CW, 3 CW) stratified by bone mineral density determined by Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry. Using a biomechanical testing setup, quasi-static and dynamic cyclic failure tests were carried out. Cyclic loading started from 200 N to 500 N at 1 Hz with increasing peak load by 250 N every 100 cycles until failure occurred or maximum load (5250 N) reached. The change of fracture gap size was optically captured. Results No significant differences in failure load after quasi-static (p = 0.701) or dynamic cyclic loading (p = 0.132) were found between the experimental groups. In the quasi-static load testing, all constructs resisted 250% of the body weight (BW) of their corresponding body donor. In the dynamic cyclic load testing, all but one construct (treated by 3 CW) resisted 250% BW. Conclusions Based on this in vitro data, both two and three CW provided sufficient primary stability according to the predefined minimum failure load (250% BW) to resist. The authors recommend the treatment using two CW because it reduces the risk of vascular injury and shortens procedure time.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2 (3) ◽  
pp. 196-206
W M U D Wijethunga ◽  
L S H Jayasooriya ◽  
S M J C Subasinghe ◽  
H M P C Kumarihami ◽  
C K Beneragama

Chlorophyll fluorescence (ChlF) is a non-invasive technique that can be potentially used in postharvest research to gain useful information on early responses to postharvest stresses. This study was conducted to validate the application of ChlF transient analysis in determining the postharvest changes in photosynthetic apparatus in three ornamental foliage species, i.e., Cordyline fruticosa ‘Willy’s Gold’ and ‘Rubra’, Dracaena sanderiana ‘White’, and Nephrolepis exaltata. Salicylic acid (100 and 300 mg·L−1), glucose (10 g·L−1), and their combinations were used as holding solutions with control treatment (distilled water) at room temperature (25±2°C). Vase life was evaluated using OJIP analysis. OJIP parameters, i.e., specific energy fluxes per reaction center (ABS/RC, TR/RC, ET/RC, and DI/RC), flux ratios (maximum quantum yield of primary photochemistry-φPo), electron transport efficiency (ψo), and quantum yield of electron transport (φEo), and performance index (PI) were recorded every other day, using a fluorometer (FluorPen 100). Leaf chlorophyll contents of all species and anthocyanin contents of two cordyline cultivars were determined. Data were subjected to ANOVA in a completely randomized design. Mean separation was done by DMRT (p ≤ 0.05). Clear variations in ChlF were observed in every foliage species with the time. OJIP analysis showed species-depended variations. The higher ABS/RC and DI/RC were recorded for D. sanderiana and N. exaltata compared to the PI of those species. At the end of the experiment, the chlorophyll contents were decreased, while anthocyanin contents were increased. Consequently, chlorophyll fluorescence changes in photosynthetic apparatus can be used for the prediction of the postharvest stresses and longevity of cut foliage.

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