game reserve
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2024 ◽  
Vol 84 ◽  
S. Malik ◽  
M. Rashid ◽  
A. Javid ◽  
A. Hussain ◽  
S. M. Bukhari ◽  

Abstract During the present study, specimens were collected from selected sites of Cholistan desert and Kalabagh Game Reserve, Punjab province, Pakistan. Each captured specimen was tagged with voucher number and morphometric measurements were taken. The average snout to vent length was 172.559±1.40 mm and average weight was 92.1±1.30 g. The DNA of Uromastyx hardwickii was amplified and sequenced using 16S rRNA primer set. The obtained DNA sequence has shown reliable and clear species identification. After trimming ambiguous bases, the obtained 16S rRNA fragment was 520 bp while 16S rRNA fragments aligned with closely matched sequence from NCBI comprised of 510 bp. Closely matched sequences of genus Uromastyx were retrieved from NCBI in blast searches. Neighbour-joining tree of genus Uromastyx was constructed based on p-distance using MEGA X. The mean intraspecific variation was 0.095±0.01 while intraspecific variation was ranging from 0-1%. Similarly, interspecific variation of Uromastyx hardwikii with Saara asmussi, Uromastyx alfredschmidti, Uromastyx geyri, Uromastyx thomasi, Uromastyx alfredschmidti was 0-12%, 0-19%, 0-19%, 0-20%, 12-19% respectively. The newly produced DNA was submitted to NCBI and accession number was obtained (MW052563.1). Results of current study provided information about the molecular and morphological identification of Genus Uromastyx. In our recommendation, comprehensive molecular based identification of Pakistan’s reptiles is required to report any new or subspecies from country.

2021 ◽  
Franciany Braga‐Pereira ◽  
Carmen Van‐Dúnem Santos ◽  
Rômulo Romeu Nóbrega Alves ◽  
Luke Hunter

2021 ◽  
Vol 62 (2) ◽  
pp. 497-520
Simon van Noort ◽  
Sergey A. Belokobylskij ◽  
Agnièle Touret-Alby

The endemic, monotypic Afrotropical genus Spathioplites Fischer, 1962 is rediscovered based on new specimens collected in South Africa and Senegal. Spathioplites phreneticus Fischer, 1962 was previously known from the holotype (male) and 12 paratypes (11 males and a female) collected in Chad in 1959. As part of an ongoing long-term insect inventory survey program in Africa new specimens were recently collected in Tswalu Kalahari Game Reserve in South Africa, extending the distribution range southwards by 4900 km. An additional historical specimen from Senegal was discovered in the collections of the Natural History Museum in Paris, extending the range westwards by 4000 km. Possible reasons for the disjunct distribution exhibited by current locality records for this species are discussed. The holotype male and a paratype female, as well as one of the two newly collected South African females were imaged. These photographs, as well as genus and species re-descriptions, are provided. An identification key to the Old World genera in the doryctine tribe Spathiini s. str. is also presented. All images and interactive identification keys are available on

Land ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (12) ◽  
pp. 1325
Nyangabo V. Musika ◽  
James V. Wakibara ◽  
Patrick A. Ndakidemi ◽  
Anna C. Treydte

The global increase of livestock has caused illegal intrusion of livestock into protected areas. Until now, hotspot areas of illegal grazing have rarely been mapped, long-term monitoring data are missing, and little is known about the drivers of illegal grazing. We localized hotspots of illegal grazing and identified factors that influenced spatio-temporal patterns of illegal grazing over three decades in the Moyowosi Kigosi Game Reserve (MKGR), Tanzania. We used questionnaires with local pastoralists (N = 159), georeferenced aerial survey data and ranger reports from 1990–2019 to understand the reasons for illegal grazing in the area. We found that hotspots of illegal grazing occurred initially within 0–20 km of the boundary (H (3) = 137, p < 0.001; (H (3) = 32, p < 0.001) and encroached further into the protected area with time (H (3) = 11.3, p = 0.010); (H (2) = 59.0, p < 0.001). Further, livestock herd sizes decreased with increasing distance from the boundary (R = −0.20, p = 0.020; R = −0.40, p = 0.010). Most interviewees (81%) claimed that they face challenges of reduced foraging land in the wet season, caused by increasing land used for cultivation, which drives them into the MKGR to feed their livestock. We conclude that there is spatio-temporal consistency in the illegal livestock intrusion over three decades, and hotspot areas are located along the boundary of the MKGR. We suggest focusing patrols at these hotspot areas, especially during the wet season, to use limited law enforcement resources effectively.

2021 ◽  
Vol 51 (1) ◽  
Terry-Lee Honiball ◽  
Michael J. Somers ◽  
Hervé Fritz ◽  
Jan A. Venter

2021 ◽  
pp. e01910
Camille J. Fritsch ◽  
Cathariné Hanekom ◽  
Colleen T. Downs

Minerals ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (10) ◽  
pp. 1133
Michael Shapi ◽  
Maryam Amra Jordaan ◽  
Andile Truelove Mbambo ◽  
Theophilus Clavell Davies ◽  
Emmanuel Chirenje ◽  

The town of Krugersdorp in South Africa is the locus of an important wildlife game reserve, the Krugersdorp Game Reserve (KGR), which is juxtaposed by the (<1000 m) down-gradient of the large-scale gold mining outfits of Mintails Mogale Gold (MMG) and Rand Uranium (RU). The aim of the study was to determine the concentration levels of potentially harmful elements (PHEs) that have accumulated due to post-mining activities in the local water bodies in Krugersdorp and to use these data as a prerequisite and basis for formulation of the most appropriate remediation measures. Thirty water samples were collected and analysed in situ for: water temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen (mgl−1), dissolved oxygen (%), total dissolved solids (TDS), oxidation/reduction potential (ORP), and electrical conductivity (EC). This was later followed by laboratory analyses of aliquots of the water samples by ICP-MS for twelve PHEs whose concentration ranges were: As (0.70–32.20), Ag (0.16–105.00), Al (1.00–41.00), Co (0.07–6.16), Cr (1.60–5.00), Cu (0.80–8.00), Fe (23.00–117.00), Mn (0.14–12 255.00), Ni (0.20–7.00), Pb (0.80–6.30), V (1.90–55.20), and Zn (2.20–783.00). Areas of the town where excessive concentration levels of these elements have negatively impacted the health of its wildlife population and surrounding ecosystems are identified, and credible mitigation measures proffered.

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