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2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (3) ◽  
pp. 284-292
Ilham Zulfahmi ◽  
Feizia Huslina ◽  
Rizki Nanda ◽  
Firman M Nur ◽  
Rian Djuanda ◽  

Studies related to the comparison of ectoparasites that infect snakehead from different habitats and their relationship to biometric conditions have not been widely studied. Thus, present study aimed to investigate the prevalence, intensity, dominance, and predilection of ectoparasites on snakehead collected from ditches, paddy fields, and swamps and correlate them with biometric conditions. In total of 90 snakehead fish were collected from ditches, paddy fields, and swamps. The observation of ectoparasites was performed on the gills, fins, and skin. The parameters measured in this study were ectoparasite profiles and biometric condition of fish. Specifically, the parameters of the ectoparasite profile included prevalence, intensity, dominance, and predilection. Meanwhile, the parameters of the biometric conditions were the length-weight relationship, the distribution of length and weight classes, and condition factors. Five species of ectoparasites that have been identified as Tetrahymena sp., Epistylis sp., Trichodina sp., Dactylogyrus sp., and Gyrodactylus sp. Tetrahymena sp. infection in snakehead was reported for the first time. The ditch habitat had the highest prevalence and intensity, which were 76.7% and 15.4 ectoparasites/fish, respectively. Tetrahymena sp. and Epistylis sp. were detected in sneakhead from all habitats, Trichodina sp. was detected at ditch and paddy field habitats, whereas, Gyrodactylus sp. and Dactylogyrus sp. were only found in swamp habitats. The gill was the predilection organ that most vulnerable to ectoparasite infection. Infected Snakehead tend to have lower average weight and length than healthy snakehead. Snakehead with a weight range of 115.2-145.2 g and a length range of 258.5-268.5 mm tend to be more vulnerable to ectoparasite infection compared to other sizes.Keywords:Tetrahymena sp.PrevalenceIntensityPredilectionLength-weight relationship

2024 ◽  
Vol 84 ◽  
S. Malik ◽  
M. Rashid ◽  
A. Javid ◽  
A. Hussain ◽  
S. M. Bukhari ◽  

Abstract During the present study, specimens were collected from selected sites of Cholistan desert and Kalabagh Game Reserve, Punjab province, Pakistan. Each captured specimen was tagged with voucher number and morphometric measurements were taken. The average snout to vent length was 172.559±1.40 mm and average weight was 92.1±1.30 g. The DNA of Uromastyx hardwickii was amplified and sequenced using 16S rRNA primer set. The obtained DNA sequence has shown reliable and clear species identification. After trimming ambiguous bases, the obtained 16S rRNA fragment was 520 bp while 16S rRNA fragments aligned with closely matched sequence from NCBI comprised of 510 bp. Closely matched sequences of genus Uromastyx were retrieved from NCBI in blast searches. Neighbour-joining tree of genus Uromastyx was constructed based on p-distance using MEGA X. The mean intraspecific variation was 0.095±0.01 while intraspecific variation was ranging from 0-1%. Similarly, interspecific variation of Uromastyx hardwikii with Saara asmussi, Uromastyx alfredschmidti, Uromastyx geyri, Uromastyx thomasi, Uromastyx alfredschmidti was 0-12%, 0-19%, 0-19%, 0-20%, 12-19% respectively. The newly produced DNA was submitted to NCBI and accession number was obtained (MW052563.1). Results of current study provided information about the molecular and morphological identification of Genus Uromastyx. In our recommendation, comprehensive molecular based identification of Pakistan’s reptiles is required to report any new or subspecies from country.

2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
A. Ullah ◽  
H. Azmat ◽  
Z. Masood ◽  
F. Arooj ◽  
S. M. Hussain ◽  

Abstract A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Piper nigrum (black pepper) leaf extract on on the growth performance, proximate composition, hematological parameters, and immune response of Labeo rohita fingerlings with an average weight of 22.14 ± 0.98g. Aftrer acclimation for two weeks, fish (n=25) were randomly selected and placed in four glass aquaria (T0, T1, T2 and T3) at constant water temperature (30.0 ± 1.0 °C), pH (7.50 ± 0.5) and total hardness (200 ± 2.0 mgL,-1) for a period of 12 weeks, with three replicates each. Fish were fed with P. nigrum leaf extract supplemented feed @ 0.0%, 1.0%, 2.0% and 3.0% in T0, T1,T2 and T3, respectively. At the end of experiment, five fish were randomly selected from each aquaria for proximate composition, gut and skin microbial load, hematological parameters. Total proteins, albumins, and globulins were also recorded to evaluate immunological memory. The result revealed that fish in T2 showed better growth performance with an average weight gain of 56.11 ± 0.51 g. Thus, it had been concluded that Piper nigrum, a medicinal plant, can also be used to enhance the growth performance and immune response of Labeo rohita as attractive alternatives against antibiotics and vaccines and has shown no negative side effects on fish health as well as on its environment.

2022 ◽  
Vol 248 ◽  
pp. 106208
Brett Crisafulli ◽  
Johnny Lo ◽  
Ute Mueller ◽  
Karina Ryan ◽  
David Fairclough

2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
S. R. G. Silva ◽  
P. V. M. Azevedo ◽  
C. J. dos Santos Júnior ◽  
J. G. da Costa ◽  
J. M. S. J. Pavão ◽  

Abstract This study aimed to analyze the socio-environmental characteristics, executive and nutritional functions in children aged 6 to 7 years, from public schools in Alagoas, Brazil. A quantitative, cross-sectional and descriptive study was performed involving 64 children of the mentioned age group, from public schools located in Alagoas: Maceió, on the coast; Major Isidoro, in the hinterland and Palmeira dos Índios, in the country. Such analyzes were made through the application of neuropsychological tests and anthropometric assessment with children and food and socio-environmental surveys with their parents. As for the type of housing, 100% were made of masonry, with a bathroom present in 98.4%. All children reported with the habit of bathing in the river / lagoon, presented some pathology. There was no significant difference between cities in terms of the sociodemographic characteristics evaluated, with the same result occurring with the factors associated with the occurrence of diseases in children. The subtests of WISC-IV, were below the average in all municipalities, and the TAC and SCC were classified within the average. However, even though the ranking were divided between below average and average, it is possible to identify from the subtests of WISC-IV, that the general IQ showed a cognitive level below the average. There was also no significant difference in the anthropometric assessment (weight, height, BMI and IMCI) between the evaluated students. The average weight was 23.3 kg to 25 kg, the height between 1.23 m to 1.24 m, the BMI between 16.4 to 17; the IMCI from 2.8 to 3.0. Children were classified within the average. Regarding micronutrients (Ca, Fe, K, Mg and Na, and vitamins A, C, D, B1, B9 and B12) and calories, there was also no significant difference between the cities evaluated. The same occurred with macronutrients (proteins, carbohydrates and lipids). This study showed that in general there was no difference between the students of the three municipalities. Probably, even though they are all public schools and from different cities, children have similar social conditions.

2022 ◽  
Vol 43 (2) ◽  
pp. 611-628
João Marcos Monteiro Batista ◽  
Leonardo Augusto Fonseca Pascoal ◽  
José Humberto Vilar da Silva ◽  
Veruska Dilyanne Silva Gomes ◽  

Fish larviculture exert great influence in the subsequent phases, in which nutrition is a basic prerequisite for success. Therefore, when it is in an intensified production system, it promotes the limitation of some minerals, making it necessary to supplement selenium in diets for post-larvae. The objective of this study was to evaluate selenium levels and sources in post-larvae Nile tilapia diets on muscle performance and histology. A total of 1,260 post-larvae with an initial average weight of 0.010 g were used, distributed in a completely randomized design in a factorial scheme with four supplementation levels (0.6; 0.9; 1.2 and 1.5 mg of Se/Kg) and two sources (sodium selenite and selenium yeast), plus the negative control, with 35 post-larvae Nile tilapia used per experimental unit. The physical-chemical parameters of water quality were within those recommended for tilapia cultivation. Feed consumption (p < 0.05) and hepatosomatic index (p < 0.05) were affected by the source used. Effects of supplemented selenium levels and sources were not observed for the other performance variables. Higher values for final height, final width, specific development rate and protein efficiency rate were found (p < 0.05) when comparing the control diet with diets containing the sodium selenite source. No effects on muscle fiber morphometry were observed (p > 0.05) in the studied variables. It is concluded that 0.6 mg of selenium in the diet, regardless of the source used, met the mineral requirement for post-larvae Nile tilapia.

2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
pp. e06SC01-e06SC01
Natalia C. Aguiar ◽  

Aim of study: To evaluate the effects of increasing NaCl levels on the zootechnical performance of pacu fingerling. Area of study: The experiments were conducted at the Aquatic Organism Production and Reproduction Systems Laboratory belonging to the Federal University of Paraná (UFPR), in the Palotina Sector, Paraná Estate, Brazil. Material and methods: Seven hundred and fifty fingerlings with an average weight of 3.41 ± 0.09 g were distributed in circular boxes, in a completely randomized design consisting of six treatments and five replications. Treatments comprised soybean- and maize-based diets containing increasing levels of NaCl (0.00, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00 and 1.25%). The experiments were conducted for 50 days. At the end of the experimental period the fish were fasted for 24 hours, anesthetized, weighed and measured to calculate zootechnical performances. Performance data were subjected to an analysis of variance followed by Tukey’s test when significant differences were found between the means (p<0.05). Main results: The influence (p<0.05) of dietary NaCl levels on final weight, feed intake, apparent feed conversion, specific growth rate, average weight gain, clean trunk production, head carcass yield, headless carcass yield, feed intake and survival was assessed. The results indicate that non-salt treated fingerlings along with the 0.25% salt inclusion treatment led to better feed use, as evidenced by apparent feed conversions of 1.64 and 2.02, respectively. Research highlights: The inclusion of NaCl in pacu fingerling soybean and maize-based diets is not recommended.

2022 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-10
Syahrizal Syahrizal ◽  
Ediwarman ◽  
Safratilofa ◽  
Muhamat Ridwan

Maggots is an organism derived from the eggs of the black fly, Hermentia illucens (black soldier fly, BSF), which undergoes metamorphosis in the second phase after the egg phase and before the pupa phase which then turns into an adult fly. The purpose of this study was to analyze the utilization of organic waste substrate on the production of BSF maggots cultivation. This research was conducted outdoor at the Freshwater Aquaculture Fisheries Center (BPBAT) Sungai Gelam Jambi with a completely randomized design (CRD) with 4 treatments and 3 replications; Treatment A: PKM (palm kernel meal) 100%, B (PKM 50% + cabbage vegetable waste 50%), C (PKM 50% + coconut pulp 50%) and D (PKM 50% + coconut pulp 25% + vegetable waste cabbage 25%). The average yield parameter of high maggots biomass in treatment A was 673.67 g/4 kg substrate and the lowest biomass in treatment D was 239.67 g/4 kg substrate. For the average weight and length of the best maggots in treatment A (0.20 g/individual) and (1.83 cm), the lowest was in B (0.12 g/Ind. and 1.58 cm). The highest was in treatment B (5,182.31 individual/4 kg substrate) and the lowest was in D (1,479.44 ind./4 kg substrate. The highest bioconversion value of maggots to organic matter OSE (organic substrate efficiency) was highest in treatment A (16, 84%) and the lowest was in D (5.99%). Technically, treatment A was slightly better than B, while economically the best organic substrate medium for maggots cultivation was in treatment B with a production cost of Rp. 7.257 and the ECR (economic conversion ratio) value of 5.81 was lower than the other 3 treatments.   Keywords: Maggots, black soldier fly, Hermentia illucens, organic waste.   ABSTRAK   Maggots merupakan organisme yang berasal dari telur seranga lalat hitam, Hermentia illucens (black soldier fly, BSF). Tujuan penelitian ini yaitu menganalisis pemanfaatan subtrat limbah organik terhadap produksi budidaya maggots BSF. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan di Balai Perikanan Budidaya Air Tawar (BPBAT) Sungai Gelam, Jambi dengan rancangan acak lengkap (RAL) 4 perlakuan 3 ulangan yaitu perlakuan A : PKM (palm kernel meal) 100%, B (PKM 50% + limbah sayur kol 50%), C (PKM 50% + ampas kelapa 50%), dan D (PKM 50% + ampas kelapa 25%+ limbah sayur kol 25%).Rata-rata biomassa tertinggi didapatkan pada perlakuanA (673,67g/4 kg subtrat) dan biomassa terendah dihasilkan pada perlakuan D (239.67g/4 kg subtrat). Untuk bobot rata-rata dan panjang maggots terbaik dihasilkan pada perlakuan A (0,20 g/individu dan 1,83 cm/individu), terendah pada B (0,12 g/individu dan (1,58 cm). Jumlah populasi maggots yang terbanyak dihasilkan pada perlakuan B (5.182,31 ind./4 kg subtrat) dan terendah pada D (1.479,44 individu/4 kg subtrat). Nilai biokonversi maggots terhadap bahan organik OSEterbaik (organic substrate efficiency) tertinggi pada perlakuan A (16,84%) dan terendah pada D (5,99%). Secara teknis perlakuan A sedikit lebih baik dari B sedangkan secara ekonomi media subtrat organik terbaik untuk budidaya maggots terdapat pada perlakuan B dengan biaya produksi sebesar Rp. 7.257 dan nilai ECR (economic convertion ratio) sebesar 5.81 lebih rendah dari ke 3 perlakuan lainnya.   Kata kunci: Maggots, black soldier fly, Hermentia illucens, limbah organik.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (12) ◽  
pp. 404-407
Gowtham R ◽  
Anisha Afza ◽  
Shankar Shankar ◽  
Lingaraju Subbanna

Background: Premature and low birth weight (LBW) infants are at increased risk of having inadequate growth in post-discharge periods. In this study, lyophilized human milk was used as an immune-nutrition supplement along with breastfeeding for a period of 1 month in preterm infants discharged from neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Objectives: Primary objective was to assess the percentage change in serum immunoglobulins for the duration of supplementation, and secondary objectives were to correlate changes in immunoglobulins to number of episodes of infections including respiratory infections and diarrhea, requirement of antibiotics, weight gain, and episodes of feed intolerance during the study period. Methods: A total of 10 preterm and LBW infants were included in the study at the time of discharge from NICU after satisfying the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The serum immunoglobulins were estimated at baseline and at end of the study, other parameters such as episodes of infections, feed intolerance, and weight gain were recorded on the weekly follow-up visits. All the infants received supplementation with NeoLact 70 – 1.55 g on a TID frequency along with the regular breastfeeding for a period of 1-month post-discharge from NICU and were followed up on a weekly basis. Results: Ten infants completed the study, mean birth weight and gestational age were 1779.4±576 gm and 33.5±4.9 weeks, respectively. There was increase in immunoglobulins IgA, IgE, IgG, and IgM by 38.29%, 85.36%, 17.45%, and 48.25%, respectively, from baseline to end of study. None of the infants experienced feeding intolerance, diarrhea, abdominal distension, fever, respiratory infections, or rehospitalizations, none of the infants required antibiotics or probiotics during the study period. The average weight gain in the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th week of supplementation was 28.42 g/day, 31.57 g/day, 35.17 g/day, and 39.24 g/day, respectively, with a mean weight gain of 30.4 g/day achieved for the entire duration of the study. Conclusion: The immune-nutritional supplementation with lyophilized human milk (NeoLact 70 – 1.55 g) helps to ensure exclusive human milk diet post-discharge and reduce the risk of infections, diarrhea, and rehospitalization through the enhancement of immunoglobulins and ensuring optimal weight gain. However, these results should be confirmed through multicentric studies with larger sample size. Supplementation with NeoLact 70 – 1.55 g can clinically benefit premature and LBW infants post-discharge.

Liu Guo ◽  
Dongming Zhang ◽  
Wenjie Tang ◽  
Zhenglin Dong ◽  
Yawei Zhang ◽  

Abstract Iron status of sows has a great influence on reproductive performance. Iron deficiency reduces reproductive performance and newborn piglet survival rate of sow. The hemoglobin is a potential predictor for iron status of sows and is convenient for rapid detection in pig farms. However, the relationship between iron status, hemoglobin, placental trace elements and reproductive performance remains unclear. In this study, the hemoglobin and reproductive performance of more than 500 sows with 1 st to 6 th parities at different gestation stages (25, 55, 75, 95, 110 days of gestation) in two large-scale sow farms were collected, and content of placental Fe, Zn, Mn and Cu was analyzed. The results show hemoglobin of sows during pregnancy (d 75, d 95, d 110) decreased significantly (P &lt; 0.001). As the parity increases, the hemoglobin levels of sows at d 25, d 55 of gestation and placental mineral element contents included Fe, Zn, Mn and Cu at delivery decreased (P &lt; 0.05), while the litter size, birth alive and litter weights increased gradually (P &lt; 0.001). Furthermore, hemoglobin during pregnancy had a negative linear correlation with litter weight and average weight (P &lt; 0.05), higher hemoglobin at d 25 of gestation may reduce the number of stillbirths (P = 0.05), but higher hemoglobin at d 110 of gestation was tend to be benefit for the birth (P = 0.01). And there was a significant positive linear correlation between hemoglobin at d 110 of gestation and placental Fe and Mn levels (P = 0.002, P = 0.013). There was also a significant positive linear correlation among Fe, Zn, Mn and Cu in the placenta (P &lt; 0.001). The levels of Fe, Zn, and Mn in placental at delivery were positive related to the average weight of the fetus (P = 0.048, P = 0.027, P = 0.047), and placental Cu was linearly correlated with litter size (P = 0.029). Our research revealed the requirements for iron during gestation were varied in different gestation periods and parities. The feeds should be adjusted according to the gestation periods, parities or iron status to meet the iron requirements of sows and fetal pigs.

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