Abstract A total of 10 specimens were captured from selected sites of Bajaur Agency FATA, Pakistan using mist nets. The captured specimens were morphologically identified and various morphometric measurements were taken. The head and Body length (HB) of Pipistrellus coromondra and Pipistrellus kuhlii lepidus (n=10) was 43±0.11 mm and 45±1.1 respectively. Morphologically identified Pipistrellus kuhlii confirmed as Pipistrellus kuhlii lepidus based on 16S rRNA sequences. The DNA sequences were submitted to GenBank and accession numbers were obtained (MN 719478 and MT430902). The available 16S rRNA gene sequences of Pipistrellus coromondra and Pipistrellus kuhlii lepidus were retrieved from NCBI and incorporated in N-J tree analysis. Overall, the interspecific genetic variations among Pipistrellus coromondra and Pipistrellus kuhlii lepidus were 8% and 1% respectively. In our recommendation, a comprehensive molecular identification of bats is need of hour to report more cryptic and new species from Pakistan.
Abstract In South and South East Asia three genera of fish species i.e. Tor, Neolissochilus and Naziritor are commonly known as Mahseer with at least 47 species. Among these 23 belongs to genus Tor, 22 to Neolissochilus and one to Naziritor i.e. Naziritor zhobensis. Recently another species added to genus Naziritor is Naziritor chelynoides in India. Among Tor species Tor putitora (Hamilton) is the most widely distributed Mahseer in Pakistan and other countries of the Indian subcontinent. However, based alone on morphological characters some authors identify the Pakistani counterparts as Tor macrolepis (Heckel), (a species presumed to be found exclusively in the Indus River system) distinct from Tor putitora (a species found in Ganga Brahmaputra River system). In order to resolve this taxonomic ambiguity, present study carried out meristic and morphometric measurements of Mahseer collected from a total of 11 water bodies of Pakistan. Ratios between the morphometric characters were calculated and statistically analyzed using t-test and correlation coefficient. Two species identified as Tor putitora and Naziritor zhobensis were the sole Mahseer inhabitants of Indus system in Pakistan. Tor putitora occurred at all surveyed sites while Nazirtor zhobensis had a distribution range from river Zhob to tributaries of river Gomal the right bank tributaries of River Indus. The study corroborates that there are no unequivocal morphological synapomorphies in any existing populations of both species. The study further demonstrates that head length, a character frequently used in Mahseer taxonomy, is not a good measure for species identification. Finally the present study establishes that Naziritor zhobensis still exists in the water bodies of Pakistan and that golden Mahseer occurring in Indus riverine system of Pakistan is Tor putitora.
Abstract During the present study, specimens were collected from selected sites of Cholistan desert and Kalabagh Game Reserve, Punjab province, Pakistan. Each captured specimen was tagged with voucher number and morphometric measurements were taken. The average snout to vent length was 172.559±1.40 mm and average weight was 92.1±1.30 g. The DNA of Uromastyx hardwickii was amplified and sequenced using 16S rRNA primer set. The obtained DNA sequence has shown reliable and clear species identification. After trimming ambiguous bases, the obtained 16S rRNA fragment was 520 bp while 16S rRNA fragments aligned with closely matched sequence from NCBI comprised of 510 bp. Closely matched sequences of genus Uromastyx were retrieved from NCBI in blast searches. Neighbour-joining tree of genus Uromastyx was constructed based on p-distance using MEGA X. The mean intraspecific variation was 0.095±0.01 while intraspecific variation was ranging from 0-1%. Similarly, interspecific variation of Uromastyx hardwikii with Saara asmussi, Uromastyx alfredschmidti, Uromastyx geyri, Uromastyx thomasi, Uromastyx alfredschmidti was 0-12%, 0-19%, 0-19%, 0-20%, 12-19% respectively. The newly produced DNA was submitted to NCBI and accession number was obtained (MW052563.1). Results of current study provided information about the molecular and morphological identification of Genus Uromastyx. In our recommendation, comprehensive molecular based identification of Pakistan’s reptiles is required to report any new or subspecies from country.
This study describes a new and safe freehand cervical pedicle screw insertion technique using preoperative computed tomography (CT) morphometric measurements as a guide and a medial pedicle pivot point (MPPP) during the procedure. This study included 271 pedicles at 216 cervical spine levels (mean: 4.75 pedicles per patient). A pedicle diameter (PD) ≥ 3.5 mm was the cut-off for pedicle screw fixation. The presence and grade of perforation were detected using postoperative CT scans, where perforations were graded as follows: 0, no perforation; 1, perforation < 0.875 mm; 2, perforation 0.875–1.75 mm; and 3, perforation > 1.75 mm. The surgical technique involved the use of an MPPP, which was the point at which the lines representing the depth of the lateral mass and total length of the pedicle intersected, deep in the lateral mass. The overall success rate was 96.3% (261/271, Grade 0 or 1 perforations). In total, 54 perforations occurred, among which 44 (81.5%) were Grade 1 and 10 (18.5%) were Grade 2. The most common perforation direction was medial (39/54, 72.2%). The freehand technique for cervical pedicle screw fixation using the MPPP may allow for a safe and accurate procedure in patients with a PD ≥3.5 mm.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of young bulls from three genetic groups, ½ Brangus x ½ Nellore (BRN), Nellore (NEL) and ½ Canchim x ½ Nellore (CAN), reared on pasture and supplemented with mineral (MS) or energy-mineral (MES) supplement. Eighty-one bulls, with a mean age of 12 months and mean body weight of 252 ± 33 kg were used. The experiment was conducted in a 3x2 factorial completely randomized design. Each genetic group was subdivided into six experimental plots, three received MS and three received MES. Animals were managed in a rotational stocking system in a Tifton 85 grass pasture. The consumption of MS was similar between the genetic groups with an average of 0.073 kg animal-1 day-1, whereas the consumption of MES was higher for BRN, 2.10 kg animal-1 day-1, followed by CAN, with 1.57 kg animal-1 day-1, and lower for NEL, with 1.28 kg animal-1 day-1. The average daily weight gain (ADG) was greater for animals that received MES compared to those that were given MS. For animals that received MS, the BRN group had ADG of 0.64 kg animal-1, while the NEL and CAN groups were similar with a mean of 0.46 kg animal-1. For animals that received MES, the CAN group had higher ADG, 0.97 kg animal-1, while the NEL and BRN groups were similar, with an average of 0.86 kg animal-1. Blood levels of total protein, albumin, creatinine, glucose and cholesterol did not change depending on the types of supplements used or between genetic groups. Higher serum urea levels were observed in NEL and CAN animals that received MS. Serum aspartate aminotransferase levels were higher in BRN and CAN animals that received MES. Gains in rump height, height at the withers, body length, rump width and chest perimeter were greater in animals that received MES. Mostly, the gains in morphometric measurements were greater for crossbred animals than for the NEL group. The supply of mineral-energy supplement in Tifton 85 grass pasture during the rainy season is recommended only for Nellore and ½ Canchim x ½ Nellore young bulls. Crossbred young bulls show greater gains in morphometric measurements than Nellore young bulls during rearing.
For the Amazon, it is important to encourage the production of native fish, since there are several species of zootechnical interest. For this, it is necessary to know the species since its acquisition, production, processing, and marketing. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the yield, correlations, and profitability of different cuts of black pacu (Colossoma macropomum) in five weight categories. Data from 220 black pacus were obtained, with a weight range of 2725 ± 1975 g. Yields of commercial cuts and morphometric measurements were evaluated in five weight classes. Kruskal–Wallis test (α = 0.05) was used to compare the average income. And, to verify the correlation between the morphometric measures and the yields, Spearman’s correlation was performed (α = 0.05). To obtain the profit of the weight classes due to the cut produced, an economic analysis was carried out considering the cost of buying the fish. Yields of fillet, ribs, and steak were higher in classes 3 and 4, while in the same classes, the yield of residues was the lowest. Despite classes 1, 2, and 5 showing lower yields, the economic analysis presented that the production of fillet and ribs was profitable. The measures of total length and standard length have a high positive correlation with the yield of meat in all classes, as well as the average circumference and caudal circumference in classes 1, 2, and 4, which can be used to determine the yields of this commercial cut.
Background: To investigate whether serial morphometric measurements of the brainstem using high resolution trans-foramen-magnum ultrasound (US) in premature neonates correlate with neurological outcomes.Methods: Serial brain ultrasound scans were performed in 36 consecutive preterm infants born at <34 weeks of gestation from birth until term-equivalent age. Two-dimensional brainstem measurements of the pons and medulla oblongata were compared with those in a cohort of 67 healthy full-term newborns. Neurologic assessment of the premature infants was assessed at 5 years of age.Results: Of the 36 preterm infants born between 25 and 34 weeks of gestation, eight had significantly delayed growth profiles in both the pons and medulla and developed neurological sequelae by 5 years of age.Conclusions: Morphometric measurements of the developing brainstem using high resolution trans-foramen-magnum ultrasound (US) may help predict neurological outcome in high-risk neonates, particularly in those who are born extremely premature.
Analysis of animal morphometrics can provide vital information regarding population dynamics, structure, and body condition of cetaceans. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have become the primary tool to collect morphometric measurements on whales, whereas on free ranging small dolphins, have not yet been applied. This study assesses the feasibility of obtaining reliable body morphometrics from Australian snubfin (Orcaella heinsohni) and humpback dolphins (Sousa sahulensis) using images collected from UAVs. Specifically, using a dolphin replica of known size, we tested the effect of the altitude of the UAV and the position of the animal within the image frame on the accuracy of length estimates. Using linear mixed models, we further assessed the precision of the total length estimates of humpback and snubfin dolphins. The precision of length estimates on the replica increased by ~2% when images were sampled at 45–60 m compared with 15–30 m. However, the precision of total length estimates on dolphins was significantly influenced only by the degree of arch and edge certainty. Overall, we obtained total length estimates with a precision of ~3% and consistent with published data. This study demonstrates the reliability of using UAV based images to obtain morphometrics of small dolphin species, such as snubfin and humpback dolphins.