Sparse Graphs
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2022 ◽  
Vol 16 (2) ◽  
pp. 1-21
Author(s):  
Michael Nelson ◽  
Sridhar Radhakrishnan ◽  
Chandra Sekharan ◽  
Amlan Chatterjee ◽  
Sudhindra Gopal Krishna

Time-evolving web and social network graphs are modeled as a set of pages/individuals (nodes) and their arcs (links/relationships) that change over time. Due to their popularity, they have become increasingly massive in terms of their number of nodes, arcs, and lifetimes. However, these graphs are extremely sparse throughout their lifetimes. For example, it is estimated that Facebook has over a billion vertices, yet at any point in time, it has far less than 0.001% of all possible relationships. The space required to store these large sparse graphs may not fit in most main memories using underlying representations such as a series of adjacency matrices or adjacency lists. We propose building a compressed data structure that has a compressed binary tree corresponding to each row of each adjacency matrix of the time-evolving graph. We do not explicitly construct the adjacency matrix, and our algorithms take the time-evolving arc list representation as input for its construction. Our compressed structure allows for directed and undirected graphs, faster arc and neighborhood queries, as well as the ability for arcs and frames to be added and removed directly from the compressed structure (streaming operations). We use publicly available network data sets such as Flickr, Yahoo!, and Wikipedia in our experiments and show that our new technique performs as well or better than our benchmarks on all datasets in terms of compression size and other vital metrics.


Author(s):  
Mohsen Alambardar Meybodi

A set [Formula: see text] of a graph [Formula: see text] is called an efficient dominating set of [Formula: see text] if every vertex [Formula: see text] has exactly one neighbor in [Formula: see text], in other words, the vertex set [Formula: see text] is partitioned to some circles with radius one such that the vertices in [Formula: see text] are the centers of partitions. A generalization of this concept, introduced by Chellali et al. [k-Efficient partitions of graphs, Commun. Comb. Optim. 4 (2019) 109–122], is called [Formula: see text]-efficient dominating set that briefly partitions the vertices of graph with different radiuses. It leads to a partition set [Formula: see text] such that each [Formula: see text] consists a center vertex [Formula: see text] and all the vertices in distance [Formula: see text], where [Formula: see text]. In other words, there exist the dominators with various dominating powers. The problem of finding minimum set [Formula: see text] is called the minimum [Formula: see text]-efficient domination problem. Given a positive integer [Formula: see text] and a graph [Formula: see text], the [Formula: see text]-efficient Domination Decision problem is to decide whether [Formula: see text] has a [Formula: see text]-efficient dominating set of cardinality at most [Formula: see text]. The [Formula: see text]-efficient Domination Decision problem is known to be NP-complete even for bipartite graphs [M. Chellali, T. W. Haynes and S. Hedetniemi, k-Efficient partitions of graphs, Commun. Comb. Optim. 4 (2019) 109–122]. Clearly, every graph has a [Formula: see text]-efficient dominating set but it is not correct for efficient dominating set. In this paper, we study the following: [Formula: see text]-efficient domination problem set is NP-complete even in chordal graphs. A polynomial-time algorithm for [Formula: see text]-efficient domination in trees. [Formula: see text]-efficient domination on sparse graphs from the parametrized complexity perspective. In particular, we show that it is [Formula: see text]-hard on d-degenerate graphs while the original dominating set has Fixed Parameter Tractable (FPT) algorithm on d-degenerate graphs. [Formula: see text]-efficient domination on nowhere-dense graphs is FPT.


Mathematics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (24) ◽  
pp. 3209
Author(s):  
Jelena Sedlar ◽  
Riste Škrekovski

A locally irregular graph is a graph in which the end vertices of every edge have distinct degrees. A locally irregular edge coloring of a graph G is any edge coloring of G such that each of the colors induces a locally irregular subgraph of G. A graph G is colorable if it allows a locally irregular edge coloring. The locally irregular chromatic index of a colorable graph G, denoted by χirr′(G), is the smallest number of colors used by a locally irregular edge coloring of G. The local irregularity conjecture claims that all graphs, except odd-length paths, odd-length cycles and a certain class of cacti are colorable by three colors. As the conjecture is valid for graphs with a large minimum degree and all non-colorable graphs are vertex disjoint cacti, we study rather sparse graphs. In this paper, we give a cactus graph B which contradicts this conjecture, i.e., χirr′(B)=4. Nevertheless, we show that the conjecture holds for unicyclic graphs and cacti with vertex disjoint cycles.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Kai Hormann ◽  
Craig Gotsman

We describe a simple and practical algorithm for compact routing on graphs which admit compact and balanced vertex separators. Using a recursive nested dissection of then-vertex graph based on these separators, we construct routing tables with as few as O(log n) entries per vertex in a preprocessing step. They support handshaking-based routing on the graph with moderate stretch, where the handshaking can be implemented similarly to a DNS lookup. We describe a basic version of the algorithm that requires modifiable headers and a more advanced version which eliminates this need and provides better stretch. A number of algorithmic parameters control a graceful tradeoff between the size of the routing tables and the stretch. Our routing algorithm is most effective on planar graphs and unit disk graphs of moderate edge/vertex density.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Kai Hormann ◽  
Craig Gotsman

We describe a simple and practical algorithm for compact routing on graphs which admit compact and balanced vertex separators. Using a recursive nested dissection of then-vertex graph based on these separators, we construct routing tables with as few as O(log n) entries per vertex in a preprocessing step. They support handshaking-based routing on the graph with moderate stretch, where the handshaking can be implemented similarly to a DNS lookup. We describe a basic version of the algorithm that requires modifiable headers and a more advanced version which eliminates this need and provides better stretch. A number of algorithmic parameters control a graceful tradeoff between the size of the routing tables and the stretch. Our routing algorithm is most effective on planar graphs and unit disk graphs of moderate edge/vertex density.


2021 ◽  
Vol 37 (4) ◽  
pp. 738-746
Author(s):  
Yu-lin Chang ◽  
Fei Jing ◽  
Guang-hui Wang ◽  
Ji-chang Wu

Author(s):  
Frank Mousset ◽  
Nemanja Škorić ◽  
Miloš Trujić
Keyword(s):  

2021 ◽  
Vol 72 ◽  
pp. 39-67
Author(s):  
Shaowei Cai ◽  
Jinkun Lin ◽  
Yiyuan Wang ◽  
Darren Strash

This paper explores techniques to quickly solve the maximum weight clique problem (MWCP) in very large scale sparse graphs. Due to their size, and the hardness of MWCP, it is infeasible to solve many of these graphs with exact algorithms. Although recent heuristic algorithms make progress in solving MWCP in large graphs, they still need considerable time to get a high-quality solution. In this work, we focus on solving MWCP for large sparse graphs within a short time limit. We propose a new method for MWCP which interleaves clique finding with data reduction rules. We propose novel ideas to make this process efficient, and develop an algorithm called FastWClq. Experiments on a broad range of large sparse graphs show that FastWClq finds better solutions than state-of-the-art algorithms while the running time of FastWClq is much shorter than the competitors for most instances. Further, FastWClq proves the optimality of its solutions for roughly half of the graphs, all with at least 105 vertices, with an average time of 21 seconds.


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