heuristic algorithms
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2022 ◽  
Vol 40 (2) ◽  
pp. 1-24
Franco Maria Nardini ◽  
Roberto Trani ◽  
Rossano Venturini

Modern search services often provide multiple options to rank the search results, e.g., sort “by relevance”, “by price” or “by discount” in e-commerce. While the traditional rank by relevance effectively places the relevant results in the top positions of the results list, the rank by attribute could place many marginally relevant results in the head of the results list leading to poor user experience. In the past, this issue has been addressed by investigating the relevance-aware filtering problem, which asks to select the subset of results maximizing the relevance of the attribute-sorted list. Recently, an exact algorithm has been proposed to solve this problem optimally. However, the high computational cost of the algorithm makes it impractical for the Web search scenario, which is characterized by huge lists of results and strict time constraints. For this reason, the problem is often solved using efficient yet inaccurate heuristic algorithms. In this article, we first prove the performance bounds of the existing heuristics. We then propose two efficient and effective algorithms to solve the relevance-aware filtering problem. First, we propose OPT-Filtering, a novel exact algorithm that is faster than the existing state-of-the-art optimal algorithm. Second, we propose an approximate and even more efficient algorithm, ϵ-Filtering, which, given an allowed approximation error ϵ, finds a (1-ϵ)–optimal filtering, i.e., the relevance of its solution is at least (1-ϵ) times the optimum. We conduct a comprehensive evaluation of the two proposed algorithms against state-of-the-art competitors on two real-world public datasets. Experimental results show that OPT-Filtering achieves a significant speedup of up to two orders of magnitude with respect to the existing optimal solution, while ϵ-Filtering further improves this result by trading effectiveness for efficiency. In particular, experiments show that ϵ-Filtering can achieve quasi-optimal solutions while being faster than all state-of-the-art competitors in most of the tested configurations.

2022 ◽  
Vol 16 (4) ◽  
pp. 1-22
Mu Yuan ◽  
Lan Zhang ◽  
Xiang-Yang Li ◽  
Lin-Zhuo Yang ◽  
Hui Xiong

Labeling data (e.g., labeling the people, objects, actions, and scene in images) comprehensively and efficiently is a widely needed but challenging task. Numerous models were proposed to label various data and many approaches were designed to enhance the ability of deep learning models or accelerate them. Unfortunately, a single machine-learning model is not powerful enough to extract various semantic information from data. Given certain applications, such as image retrieval platforms and photo album management apps, it is often required to execute a collection of models to obtain sufficient labels. With limited computing resources and stringent delay, given a data stream and a collection of applicable resource-hungry deep-learning models, we design a novel approach to adaptively schedule a subset of these models to execute on each data item, aiming to maximize the value of the model output (e.g., the number of high-confidence labels). Achieving this lofty goal is nontrivial since a model’s output on any data item is content-dependent and unknown until we execute it. To tackle this, we propose an Adaptive Model Scheduling framework, consisting of (1) a deep reinforcement learning-based approach to predict the value of unexecuted models by mining semantic relationship among diverse models, and (2) two heuristic algorithms to adaptively schedule the model execution order under a deadline or deadline-memory constraints, respectively. The proposed framework does not require any prior knowledge of the data, which works as a powerful complement to existing model optimization technologies. We conduct extensive evaluations on five diverse image datasets and 30 popular image labeling models to demonstrate the effectiveness of our design: our design could save around 53% execution time without loss of any valuable labels.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-22
M. Saqib Nawaz ◽  
Philippe Fournier-Viger ◽  
Unil Yun ◽  
Youxi Wu ◽  
Wei Song

High utility itemset mining (HUIM) is the task of finding all items set, purchased together, that generate a high profit in a transaction database. In the past, several algorithms have been developed to mine high utility itemsets (HUIs). However, most of them cannot properly handle the exponential search space while finding HUIs when the size of the database and total number of items increases. Recently, evolutionary and heuristic algorithms were designed to mine HUIs, which provided considerable performance improvement. However, they can still have a long runtime and some may miss many HUIs. To address this problem, this article proposes two algorithms for HUIM based on Hill Climbing (HUIM-HC) and Simulated Annealing (HUIM-SA). Both algorithms transform the input database into a bitmap for efficient utility computation and for search space pruning. To improve population diversity, HUIs discovered by evolution are used as target values for the next population instead of keeping the current optimal values in the next population. Through experiments on real-life datasets, it was found that the proposed algorithms are faster than state-of-the-art heuristic and evolutionary HUIM algorithms, that HUIM-SA discovers similar HUIs, and that HUIM-SA evolves linearly with the number of iterations.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-29
Afiya Ayman ◽  
Amutheezan Sivagnanam ◽  
Michael Wilbur ◽  
Philip Pugliese ◽  
Abhishek Dubey ◽  

Due to the high upfront cost of electric vehicles, many public transit agencies can afford only mixed fleets of internal combustion and electric vehicles. Optimizing the operation of such mixed fleets is challenging because it requires accurate trip-level predictions of electricity and fuel use as well as efficient algorithms for assigning vehicles to transit routes. We present a novel framework for the data-driven prediction of trip-level energy use for mixed-vehicle transit fleets and for the optimization of vehicle assignments, which we evaluate using data collected from the bus fleet of CARTA, the public transit agency of Chattanooga, TN. We first introduce a data collection, storage, and processing framework for system-level and high-frequency vehicle-level transit data, including domain-specific data cleansing methods. We train and evaluate machine learning models for energy prediction, demonstrating that deep neural networks attain the highest accuracy. Based on these predictions, we formulate the problem of minimizing energy use through assigning vehicles to fixed-route transit trips. We propose an optimal integer program as well as efficient heuristic and meta-heuristic algorithms, demonstrating the scalability and performance of these algorithms numerically using the transit network of CARTA.

Rana Jassim Mohammed ◽  
Enas Abbas Abed ◽  
Mostafa Mahmoud El-gayar

<p>Wireless networks are currently used in a wide range of healthcare, military, or environmental applications. Wireless networks contain many nodes and sensors that have many limitations, including limited power, limited processing, and narrow range. Therefore, determining the coordinates of the location of a node of the unknown location at a low cost and a limited treatment is one of the most important challenges facing this field. There are many meta-heuristic algorithms that help in identifying unknown nodes for some known nodes. In this manuscript, hybrid metaheuristic optimization algorithms such as grey wolf optimization and salp swarm algorithm are used to solve localization problem of internet of things (IoT) sensors. Several experiments are conducted on every meta-heuristic optimization algorithm to compare them with the proposed method. The proposed algorithm achieved high accuracy with low error rate (0.001) and low power <br />consumption.</p>

Babatunde Olusegun Adewolu ◽  
Akshay Kumar Saha

Applications of Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS) devices for enhancement of Available Transfer Capability (ATC) is gaining attention due to economic and technical limits of the conventional methods involving physical network expansions. FACTS allocation which is sine-qua-non to its performance is a major problem and it is being addressed in recent time with heuristic algorithms. Brain Storm Optimization Algorithms (BSOA) is a new heuristic and predicting optimization algorithms which revolutionizes human brainstorming process. BSOA is engaged for the optimum setting of FACTS devices for enhancement of ATC of a deregulated electrical power system network in this study. ATC enhancement, bus voltage deviation minimization and real power loss regulation are formulated into multi-objective problems for FACTS allocation purposes. Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor (TCSC) is considered for simulation and analyses because of its fitness for active power control among other usefulness. ATC values are obtained for both normal and N-1-line outage contingency cases and these values are enhanced for different bilateral and multilateral power transactions. IEEE 30 Bus system is used for demonstration of the effectiveness of this approach in a Matlab software environment. Obtained enhanced ATC values for different transactions during normal evaluation cases are then compared with enhanced ATC values obtained with Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) set TCSC technique under same trading. BSO behaved much like PSO throughout the achievements of other set objectives but performed better in ATC enhancement with 27.12 MW and 5.24 MW increase above enhanced ATC values achieved by the latter. The comparative of set objectives values relative to that obtained with PSO methods depict suitability and advantages of BSOA technique.

Informatics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 4
Vidhya V ◽  
U. Raghavendra ◽  
Anjan Gudigar ◽  
Praneet Kasula ◽  
Yashas Chakole ◽  

Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is a devastating and life-threatening medical condition that can result in long-term physical and mental disabilities and even death. Early and accurate detection of Intracranial Hemorrhage (ICH) in TBI is crucial for analysis and treatment, as the condition can deteriorate significantly with time. Hence, a rapid, reliable, and cost-effective computer-aided approach that can initially capture the hematoma features is highly relevant for real-time clinical diagnostics. In this study, the Gray Level Occurrence Matrix (GLCM), the Gray Level Run Length Matrix (GLRLM), and Hu moments are used to generate the texture features. The best set of discriminating features are obtained using various meta-heuristic algorithms, and these optimal features are subjected to different classifiers. The synthetic samples are generated using ADASYN to compensate for the data imbalance. The proposed CAD system attained 95.74% accuracy, 96.93% sensitivity, and 94.67% specificity using statistical and GLRLM features along with KNN classifier. Thus, the developed automated system can enhance the accuracy of hematoma detection, aid clinicians in the fast interpretation of CT images, and streamline triage workflow.

2022 ◽  
Omid Keramatlou ◽  
Nikbakhsh Javadian ◽  
Hosein Didehkhani ◽  
Mohammad Amirkhan

Abstract In this paper, a closed-loop supply chain (CLSC) is modeled to obtain the best location of retailers and allocate them to other utilities. The structure of CLSC includes production centers, retailers’ centers, probabilistic customers, collection, and disposal centers. In this research, two strategies are considered to find the best location for retailers by focusing on 1- the type of expected movement 2- expected coverage (distance and time) for minimizing the costs and maximizing the profit by considering the probabilistic customer and uncertainly demand. First of all, the expected distances between customers and retailers are calculated per movement method. These values are compared with the Maximum expected coverage distance of retailers, which is displayed in algorithm 1 heuristically, and the minimum value is picked. Also, to allocate customers to retailers, considering the customer's movement methods and comparing it with Maximum expected coverage time, which is presented in Algorithm 2 heuristically, the minimum value is chosen to this end, a bi-objective nonlinear programming model is proposed. This model concurrently compares Strategies 1 and 2 to select the best competitor. Based on the chosen strategy, the best allocation is determined by employing two heuristic algorithms, and the locations of the best retailers are determined. As the proposed model is NP-hard, a meta-heuristics (non-dominated sorting genetic) algorithm is employed for the solution process. Afterward, the effectiveness of the proposed model is validated and confirmed, and the obtained results are analyzed. For this purpose, a numerical example is given and solved through the optimization software.

Mathematics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (2) ◽  
pp. 183
Xiaobing Yu ◽  
Xuejing Wu ◽  
Wenguan Luo

As one of the most promising forms of renewable energy, solar energy is increasingly deployed. The simulation and control of photovoltaic (PV) systems requires identification of their parameters. A Hybrid Adaptive algorithm based on JAYA and Differential Evolution (HAJAYADE) is developed to identify these parameters accurately and reliably. The HAJAYADE algorithm consists of adaptive JAYA, adaptive DE, and the chaotic perturbation method. Two adaptive coefficients are introduced in adaptive JAYA to balance the local and global search. In adaptive DE, the Rank/Best/1 mutation operator is put forward to boost the exploration and maintain the exploitation. The chaotic perturbation method is applied to reinforce the local search further. The HAJAYADE algorithm is employed to address the parameter identification of PV systems through five test cases, and the eight latest meta-heuristic algorithms are its opponents. The mean RMSE values of the HAJAYADE algorithm from five test cases are 9.8602 × 10−4, 9.8294 × 10−4, 2.4251 × 10−3, 1.7298 × 10−3, and 1.6601 × 10−2. Consequently, HAJAYADE is proven to be an efficient and reliable algorithm and could be an alternative algorithm to identify the parameters of PV systems.

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