antibiotic administration
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2022 ◽  
Vol 270 ◽  
pp. 495-502
Navpreet K Dhillon ◽  
Norair Adjamian ◽  
Nicole M Fierro ◽  
Geena Conde ◽  
Galinos Barmparas ◽  

2022 ◽  
pp. 526-528
Subramani Jagadeesan ◽  
Pranav Patel ◽  
Ajay Jain

Scrub typhus (bush typhus) is a potentially lethal mite-borne, acute febrile infectious illness caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi, reported precipitating frequent outbreaks in the Asia-pacific belt. Usual presentation after a median incubation period of 10–14 days, stretches from pathognomonic eschar, high-grade fever, centrifugal skin rash, jaundice, regional lymphadenopathy to frontal headache, nevertheless complicated at times with myocarditis, acute respiratory distress syndrome, acute kidney injury, encephalitis, and shock. Although patients with scrub typhus invariably do display mild liver injury, fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) is rarely reported. We describe herein, a case of FHF in an elderly male that responded well to antibiotics. Early diagnosis and sensitive antibiotic administration aids in mortality prevention of the former.

Critical Care ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 26 (1) ◽  
Yunjoo Im ◽  
Danbee Kang ◽  
Ryoung-Eun Ko ◽  
Yeon Joo Lee ◽  
Sung Yoon Lim ◽  

Abstract Background Timely administration of antibiotics is one of the most important interventions in reducing mortality in sepsis. However, administering antibiotics within a strict time threshold in all patients suspected with sepsis will require huge amount of effort and resources and may increase the risk of unintentional exposure to broad-spectrum antibiotics in patients without infection with its consequences. Thus, controversy still exists on whether clinicians should target different time-to-antibiotics thresholds for patients with sepsis versus septic shock. Methods This study analyzed prospectively collected data from an ongoing multicenter cohort of patients with sepsis identified in the emergency department. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were compared for in-hospital mortality of patients who had received antibiotics within 1 h to that of those who did not. Spline regression models were used to assess the association of time-to-antibiotics as continuous variables and increasing risk of in-hospital mortality. The differences in the association between time-to-antibiotics and in-hospital mortality were assessed according to the presence of septic shock. Results Overall, 3035 patients were included in the analysis. Among them, 601 (19.8%) presented with septic shock, and 774 (25.5%) died. The adjusted OR for in-hospital mortality of patients whose time-to-antibiotics was within 1 h was 0.78 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.61–0.99; p = 0.046). The adjusted OR for in-hospital mortality was 0.66 (95% CI 0.44–0.99; p = 0.049) and statistically significant in patients with septic shock, whereas it was 0.85 (95% CI 0.64–1.15; p = 0.300) in patients with sepsis but without shock. Among patients who received antibiotics within 3 h, those with septic shock showed 35% (p = 0.042) increased risk of mortality for every 1-h delay in antibiotics, but no such trend was observed in patients without shock. Conclusion Timely administration of antibiotics improved outcomes in patients with septic shock; however, the association between early antibiotic administration and outcome was not as clear in patients with sepsis without shock.

2022 ◽  
pp. 089686082110692
Chau Wei Ling ◽  
Kamal Sud ◽  
Connie Van ◽  
Gregory M Peterson ◽  
Rahul P Patel ◽  

In the absence of guidelines on the management of peritoneal dialysis (PD)-associated peritonitis in patients on automated peritoneal dialysis (APD), variations in clinical practice potentially exist between PD units that could affect clinical outcomes. This study aimed to document the current practices of treating PD-associated peritonitis in patients on APD across Australia and New Zealand and the reasons for practice variations using a cross-sectional online survey. Of the 62 PD units, 34 medical leads (55%) responded to the survey. When treating APD-associated peritonitis, 21 units (62%) continued patients on APD and administered intraperitoneal (IP) antibiotics in manual daytime exchanges; of these, 17 (81%) considered allowing at least 6 h dwell time for adequate absorption of the IP antibiotics as an important reason for adding manual daytime exchange. Nine units (26%) temporarily switched patients from APD to continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD); of these, five (55%) reported a lack of pharmacokinetic (PK) data for IP antibiotics in APD, four (44%) reported a shortage of APD-trained nursing staff to perform APD exchanges during hospitalisation and three (33%) reported inadequate time for absorption of IP antibiotics on APD as important reasons for their practice. Four units (12%) continued patients on APD and administered IP antibiotics during APD exchanges; of these, three (75%) believed that PK data available in CAPD could be extrapolated to APD. This study demonstrates wide variations in the management of APD-associated peritonitis in Australia and New Zealand; it points towards the lack of PK on antibiotics used to treat peritonitis as an important reason underpinning practice variations.

F1000Research ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
pp. 30
Hani A. Naseef ◽  
Ula Mohammad ◽  
Nimeh Al-Shami ◽  
Yousef Sahoury ◽  
Abdallah D. Abukhalil ◽  

Background: Diagnosis of co-infections with multiple pathogens among hospitalized coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients can be jointly challenging and essential for appropriate treatment, shortening hospital stays and preventing antimicrobial resistance. This study proposes to investigate the burden of bacterial and fungal co-infections outcomes on COVID-19 patients. It is a single center cross-sectional study of hospitalized COVID-19 patients at Beit-Jala hospital in Palestine. Methods: The study included 321 hospitalized patients admitted to the ICU between June 2020 and March 2021 aged ≥20 years, with a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 via reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay conducted on a nasopharyngeal swab. The patient's information was gathered using graded data forms from electronic medical reports. Results: The diagnosis of bacterial and fungal infection was proved through the patient’s clinical presentation and positive blood or sputum culture results. All cases had received empirical antimicrobial therapy before the intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and different regimens during the ICU stay. The rate of bacterial co-infection was 51.1%, mainly from gram-negative isolates (Enterobacter species and K.pneumoniae). The rate of fungal co-infection caused by A.fumigatus was 48.9%, and the mortality rate was 8.1%. However, it is unclear if it had been attributed to SARS-CoV-2 or coincidental. Conclusions: Bacterial and fungal co-infection is common among COVID-19 patients at the ICU in Palestine, but it is not obvious if these cases are attributed to SARS-CoV-2 or coincidental, because little data is available to compare it with the rates of secondary infection in local ICU departments before the pandemic. Comprehensively, those conclusions present data supporting a conservative antibiotic administration for severely unwell COVID-19 infected patients. Our examination regarding the impacts of employing antifungals to manage COVID-19 patients can work as a successful reference for future COVID-19 therapy.

Pathogens ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 81
Răzvan-Cosmin Petca ◽  
Răzvan-Alexandru Dănău ◽  
Răzvan-Ionuț Popescu ◽  
Daniel Damian ◽  
Cristian Mareș ◽  

Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis (XGP) represents a rare and severe pathology secondary to chronic urinary obstruction and recurrent infections. Commonly, this condition leads to loss of kidney function, and frequently, surgical approach is the only optional treatment. Proteus mirabilis and Escherichia coli are the most frequent pathogens associated with XGP. The actual changes in the pathogen’s characteristics increased the risk of newly acquired infections once considered opportunistic. Stenotrophomonas malthophilia is one of those agents more related to immunocompromised patients, presenting an increased incidence and modified antibiotic resistance profile in the modern era. This case report presents a healthy female patient with an underlying renal stone pathology diagnosed with XGP related to S. maltophilia urinary infection. After a complete biological and imagistic evaluation, the case was treated as pyonephrosis. Empirical antibiotic administration and a surgical approach were considered. A total nephrectomy was performed, but the patient’s condition did not improve. The patient’s status improved when specific antibiotics were administered based on the bacterial identification and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of drained perinephric fluid. Levofloxacin and Vancomycin were considered the optimal combination in this case. The histopathological examination revealed XGP secondary to chronic renal stone. The present study describes the first case of XGP related to an aerobic Gram-negative pathogen such as S. maltophilia, once considered opportunistic, in an apparently healthy female adult.

Hand ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. 155894472110635
Saurabh Mehta ◽  
Tannor Court ◽  
Alexander Graf ◽  
Cameron Best ◽  
Robert Havlik

Background: In 2015, the American Association of Plastic Surgeons (AAPS) published a consensus statement against the routine use of preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent surgical site infection in clean hand surgery. The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS) similarly cited “insufficient evidence” in its Appropriate Use Criteria guidelines to support the use of antibiotics in carpal tunnel surgery. Nonetheless, its administration remains a common practice during clean hand surgery. We sought to evaluate the impact of the above guidelines on preoperative antibiotic administration. Methods: An institutional review board–approved retrospective chart review of consecutive patients with carpal tunnel syndrome treated with open carpal tunnel release (CTR) at our institution was performed in the 2 years before and after publication of AAPS/AAOS guidelines. Patient demographics and surgical outcomes were reviewed. Incidence of antibiotic administration, patient demographics, and surgeon factors were collected. Results: A total of 770 primary open CTR procedures were performed in the studied years. In 2013 and 2014, 83.9% of patients received preoperative antibiotics. In 2017 and 2018, 48.2% of patients received preoperative antibiotics. Of the variables analyzed, immunosuppression, history of diabetes, and poorly controlled diabetes (A1c > 7) were found to be statistically significant in its positive correlation to prophylactic preoperative antibiotic use. Diabetes was not associated with surgical site infections. Conclusion: Patients were more likely to receive preoperative antibiotics before the publication of the AAPS/AAOS clinical practice guidelines. Patients with diabetes regardless of their glycemic control are more likely to receive preoperative antibiotics.

2022 ◽  
Michael van Schaik ◽  
Hans in 't Veen ◽  
Guy Brusselle ◽  
Wim Boersma ◽  
Paul Bresser ◽  

Abstract Background: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a worldwide prevalent disease. It is estimated to be the 3rd leading cause of death worldwide in 2020, and it is also a leading cause of disability-adjusted life years (DALY’s). COPD accounts for just over 3% of the total health care budget in the European Union. The majority of these costs are attributed to acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD). Given the contribution of exacerbations, it is of paramount importance to improve the current treatment of exacerbations to reduce the burden of disease for patients (mortality and DALY’s) and for society (costs). Treatment of AECOPD generally consists of corticosteroids and antibiotics, mostly in one-size fits all fashion. Pulmonary physicians are well aware of overuse of antibiotics, but lack the tools to decide which medication to give. Biomarkers may aid towards a more personalized treatment of AECOPD by identifying which patient would benefit from antibiotics. Procalcitonin (PCT) is the precursor of calcitonin and is released in response to a bacterial infection. PCT levels are minimally raised in viral infections, making it a relative specific diagnostic tool for bacterial infections. Several trials have shown a reduction in antibiotic consumption in AECOPD when using a PCT-guided treatment algorithm. One meta-analysis suggested that PCT-based protocols may be superior to standard care, but the authors stated that appropriately powered confirmatory trials are necessary. The objective of our study is to assess that at hospitalization for a severe AECOPD, PCT-guided treatment to guide antibiotic administration is non-inferior to usual care, in terms of treatment failure at day 30. Methods: The study is set up as a prospective randomized trial. A total of 693 patients with a severe exacerbation of COPD will be included and randomized between usual care and PCT-guided treatment regarding antibiotic therapy. The primary endpoint will be treatment failure within 30 days after inclusion, the endpoint comprises disease-related mortality and other disease-related adverse events. Discussion: We believe this trial can add to the currently available evidence with PCT being tested in a clinical setting in a treatment algorithm specifically in COPD with the primary objective being treatment failure. Trial registration: Netherlands Trial Register. Registration number: NL9122. Date of registration: 24-11-2020. URL of trial registry record:

Farnaz Naeimzadeh ◽  
Parvin Bastani ◽  
Elnaz Shaseb

Background: Drug utilization Evaluation is the main tool to assess the clinical and economic effects of drug on health-care system. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the regimens of antibiotic prophylaxis in common gynecological surgeries in a referral teaching hospital Methods: This cross-sectional study was done in Alzahra hospital, Tabriz, Iran, from July 2017 to December 2017. Patients who received antibiotics as surgical site infection prophylaxis were enrolled. Data were collected from patients’ medical records and adherence rate to the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP) guideline was studied as the primary endpoint. Results: A total of 210 patients who undergoes common gynecological surgeries were evaluated. Cesarean section (58.6%) and total abdominal hysterectomy (28.1%) were the majority of surgeries. The type of administered antibiotic was adherent to guideline in 71.4%. Doses and duration of prescribed antibiotic (Cefazolin, the most prescribed antibiotic) were not in accordance with the guideline in 100%. Only in 58%, the time of antibiotic administration was corrected. Conclusion: In this study, the misuse of antibiotics in most cases was documented in terms of type, dose and duration of drug administration in Al-Zahra Hospital. It seems necessary to publish evidence-based guidelines and monitor their proper implementation, not only to reduce costs but also to combat antibiotic resistance.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Ken Blount ◽  
Courtney Jones ◽  
Dana Walsh ◽  
Carlos Gonzalez ◽  
William D. Shannon

Background: The human gut microbiota are important to health and wellness, and disrupted microbiota homeostasis, or “dysbiosis,” can cause or contribute to many gastrointestinal disease states. Dysbiosis can be caused by many factors, most notably antibiotic treatment. To correct dysbiosis and restore healthier microbiota, several investigational microbiota-based live biotherapeutic products (LBPs) are in formal clinical development. To better guide and refine LBP development and to better understand and manage the risks of antibiotic administration, biomarkers that distinguish post-antibiotic dysbiosis from healthy microbiota are needed. Here we report the development of a prototype Microbiome Health Index for post-Antibiotic dysbiosis (MHI-A).Methods: MHI-A was developed and validated using longitudinal gut microbiome data from participants in clinical trials of RBX2660 and RBX7455 – investigational LBPs in development for reducing recurrent Clostridioides difficile infections (rCDI). The MHI-A algorithm relates the relative abundances of microbiome taxonomic classes that changed the most after RBX2660 or RBX7455 treatment, that strongly correlated with clinical response, and that reflect biological mechanisms believed important to rCDI. The diagnostic utility of MHI-A was reinforced using publicly available microbiome data from healthy or antibiotic-treated populations.Results: MHI-A has high accuracy to distinguish post-antibiotic dysbiosis from healthy microbiota. MHI-A values were consistent across multiple healthy populations and were significantly shifted by antibiotic treatments known to alter microbiota compositions, shifted less by microbiota-sparing antibiotics. Clinical response to RBX2660 and RBX7455 correlated with a shift of MHI-A from dysbiotic to healthy values.Conclusion: MHI-A is a promising biomarker of post-antibiotic dysbiosis and subsequent restoration. MHI-A may be useful for rank-ordering the microbiota-disrupting effects of antibiotics and as a pharmacodynamic measure of microbiota restoration.

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