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2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-30
Mengke Ge ◽  
Xiaobing Ni ◽  
Xu Qi ◽  
Song Chen ◽  
Jinglei Huang ◽  

Brain network is a large-scale complex network with scale-free, small-world, and modularity properties, which largely supports this high-efficiency massive system. In this article, we propose to synthesize brain-network-inspired interconnections for large-scale network-on-chips. First, we propose a method to generate brain-network-inspired topologies with limited scale-free and power-law small-world properties, which have a low total link length and extremely low average hop count approximately proportional to the logarithm of the network size. In addition, given the large-scale applications, considering the modularity of the brain-network-inspired topologies, we present an application mapping method, including task mapping and deterministic deadlock-free routing, to minimize the power consumption and hop count. Finally, a cycle-accurate simulator BookSim2 is used to validate the architecture performance with different synthetic traffic patterns and large-scale test cases, including real-world communication networks for the graph processing application. Experiments show that, compared with other topologies and methods, the brain-network-inspired network-on-chips (NoCs) generated by the proposed method present significantly lower average hop count and lower average latency. Especially in graph processing applications with a power-law and tightly coupled inter-core communication, the brain-network-inspired NoC has up to 70% lower average hop count and 75% lower average latency than mesh-based NoCs.

2022 ◽  
Vol 70 (2) ◽  
pp. 3251-3265
Muhammad Ibrahim Khalil ◽  
Samabia Tehsin ◽  
Mamoona Humayun ◽  
N.Z Jhanjhi ◽  
Mohammed A. AlZain

2021 ◽  
Lin Mei ◽  
Matthew J Reynolds ◽  
Damien Garbett ◽  
Rui Gong ◽  
Tobias Meyer ◽  

To fulfill the cytoskeleton's diverse functions in cell mechanics and motility, actin networks with specialized architectures are built by crosslinking proteins, which bridge filaments to control micron-scale network geometry through nanoscale binding interactions via poorly defined structural mechanisms. Here, we introduce a machine-learning enabled cryo-EM pipeline for visualizing active crosslinkers, which we use to analyze human T-plastin, a member of the evolutionarily ancient plastin/fimbrin family of tandem calponin-homology domain (CHD) proteins. We define a sequential bundling mechanism which enables T-plastin to bridge filaments in both parallel and anti-parallel orientations. Our structural, biochemical, and cell biological data highlight inter-CHD linkers as key structural elements underlying flexible but stable crosslinking which are likely to be disrupted by mutations causing hereditary bone diseases. Beyond revealing how plastins are evolutionary optimized to crosslink dense actin networks with mixed polarity, our cryo-EM workflow will broadly enable analysis of the structural mechanisms underlying cytoskeletal network construction.

Energies ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (23) ◽  
pp. 8063
Alejandro J. del Real ◽  
Andrés Pastor ◽  
Jaime Durán

This paper aims to provide the smart grid research community with an open and accessible general mathematical framework to develop and implement optimal flexibility mechanisms in large-scale network applications. The motivation of this paper is twofold. On the one hand, flexibility mechanisms are currently a hot topic of research, which is aimed to mitigate variation and uncertainty of electricity demand and supply in decentralised grids with a high aggregated share of renewables. On the other hand, a large part of such related research is performed by heuristic methods, which are generally inefficient (such methods do not guarantee optimality) and difficult to extrapolate for different use cases. Alternatively, this paper presents an MPC-based (model predictive control) framework explicitly including a generic flexibility mechanism, which is easy to particularise to specific strategies such as demand response, flexible production and energy efficiency services. The proposed framework is benchmarked with other non-optimal control configurations to better show the advantages it provides. The work of this paper is completed by the implementation of a generic use case, which aims to further clarify the use of the framework and, thus, to ease its adoption by other researchers in their specific flexibility mechanism applications.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-21
Mahsa Rahimi Siegrist ◽  
Francesco Corman

Disruption in public transport networks has adverse implications for both passengers and service managers. To evaluate the effects of disruptions on passengers’ behaviour, various methods, simulation modules, and mathematical models are widely used. However, such methods included many assumptions for the sake of simplicity. We here use multiagent microsimulation modules to simulate complex real-life scenarios. Aspects that were never explicitly modelled together are the capacity of the network and the effect of disruption to on-board passengers, who might need to alight the disrupted services. In addition, our simulation and developed module provide a framework that can be applied for both transport planning and real-time management of disruption for the large-scale network. We formalize the agent-based assignment problem in capacitated transit networks for disrupted situations, where some information is available about the disruption. We extend a microsimulation environment to quantify precisely the impact and the number of agents directly and indirectly affected by the disruption, respectively, those passengers who cannot perform their trip because of disrupted services (directly affected passengers), and those passengers whose services are not disrupted but experience additional crowding effects (indirectly affected passengers). The outcomes are discussed both from passengers’ perspective and for extracting more general planning and policy recommendations. The modeling and solution approaches are applied to the multimodal public transport system of Zürich, Switzerland. Our results show that different information dissemination strategies have a large impact on direct and indirect effects. By earlier information dissemination, the direct effects get milder but larger in space, and indirect negative effects arise. The scenarios with the least information instead are very strongly affecting few passengers, while the less negative indirect effect for the rest of the network.

Lu Zhao ◽  
Xiaowei Xu ◽  
Runping Hou ◽  
Wangyuan Zhao ◽  
Hai Zhong ◽  

Abstract Subtype classification plays a guiding role in the clinical diagnosis and treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, due to the gigapixel of whole slide images (WSIs) and the absence of definitive morphological features, most automatic subtype classification methods for NSCLC require manually delineating the regions of interest (ROIs) on WSIs. In this paper, a weakly supervised framework is proposed for accurate subtype classification while freeing pathologists from pixel-level annotation. With respect to the characteristics of histopathological images, we design a two-stage structure with ROI localization and subtype classification. We first develop a method called MR-EM-CNN (multi-resolution expectation-maximization convolutional neural network) to locate ROIs for subsequent subtype classification. The EM algorithm is introduced to select the discriminative image patches for training a patch-wise network, with only WSI-wise labels available. A multi-resolution mechanism is designed for fine localization, similar to the coarse-to-fine process of manual pathological analysis. In the second stage, we build a novel hierarchical attention multi-scale network (HMS) for subtype classification. HMS can capture multi-scale features flexibly driven by the attention module and implement hierarchical features interaction. Experimental results on the 1002-patient Cancer Genome Atlas dataset achieved an AUC of 0.9602 in the ROI localization and an AUC of 0.9671 for subtype classification. The proposed method shows superiority compared with other algorithms in the subtype classification of NSCLC. The proposed framework can also be extended to other classification tasks with WSIs.

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