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2022 ◽  
Vol 97 ◽  
pp. 25-31
Author(s):  
Karim Khoshgard ◽  
Meysam Siyah Mansoory ◽  
Hosna Nouri ◽  
Maria Clotilde H. Tavares ◽  
Carlos Tomaz ◽  
...  

2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Fatemeh Tabassi Mofrad ◽  
Niels O. Schiller

The cytoarchitectonically tripartite organization of the inferior parietal cortex (IPC) into the rostral, the middle and the caudal clusters has been generally ignored when associating different functions to this part of the cortex, resulting in inconsistencies about how IPC is understood. In this study, we investigated the patterns of functional connectivity of the caudal IPC in a task requiring cognitive control of language, using multiband EPI. This part of the cortex demonstrated functional connectivity patterns dissimilar to a cognitive control area and at the same time the caudal IPC showed negative functional associations with both task-related brain areas and the precuneus cortex, which is active during resting state. We found evidence suggesting that the traditional categorization of different brain areas into either task-related or resting state-related networks cannot accommodate the functions of the caudal IPC. This underlies the hypothesis about a modulating cortical area proposing that its involvement in task performance, in a modulating manner, is marked by deactivation in the patterns of functional associations with parts of the brain that are recognized to be involved in doing a task, proportionate to task difficulty; however, their patterns of functional connectivity in some other respects do not correspond to the resting state-related parts of the cortex.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Ana Bujan ◽  
Adriana Sampaio ◽  
Diego Pinal

Measurement of cognitive reserve (CR) is a matter of constant reviews and developments due to the difficulty to assess it directly, being socio-behavioral indexes used as indirect proxies. An effort to unravel the neural correlates underlying CR seems mandatory, and strongly supported by the neuroscientific literature. Neurophysiological measures through electroencephalography (EEG) have proven to be a promising, almost inexpensive method to study the CR neural correlates. In line with the recommendations of Stern et al. (2020), the aim of the present study has been to demonstrate that resting-state EEG measures may moderate the relationship between age-related brain changes and cognitive status; thus, constituting an objective neural index of CR.Our results show that two resting-state EEG measures, delta current source density in the occipital region and beta 2 connectivity between limbic and occipital regions in the right hemisphere, moderate the relation between age and cognitive performance, indexing neuroprotective effects on cognition during the aging process. These results not only shed light on the neural mechanisms involved in CR but also allow us to propose features to be taken into account in order to enhance the results of interventions to delay the onset of cognitive deficits.


2022 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Author(s):  
Zhaoxia Qin ◽  
Huai-Bin Liang ◽  
Muwei Li ◽  
Yue Hu ◽  
Jing Wu ◽  
...  

Background: In attempts to understand the migraine patients’ overall brain functional architecture, blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signals in the white matter (WM) and gray matter (GM) were considered in the current study. Migraine, a severe and multiphasic brain condition, is characterized by recurrent attacks of headaches. BOLD fluctuations in a resting state exhibit similar temporal and spectral profiles in both WM and GM. It is feasible to explore the functional interactions between WM tracts and GM regions in migraine.Methods: Forty-eight migraineurs without aura (MWoA) and 48 healthy controls underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Pearson’s correlations between the mean time courses of 48 white matter (WM) bundles and 82 gray matter (GM) regions were computed for each subject. Two-sample t-tests were performed on the Pearson’s correlation coefficients (CC) to compare the differences between the MWoA and healthy controls in the GM-averaged CC of each bundle and the WM-averaged CC of each GM region.Results: The MWoAs exhibited an overall decreased average temporal CC between BOLD signals in 82 GM regions and 48 WM bundles compared with healthy controls, while little was increased. In particular, WM bundles such as left anterior corona radiata, left external capsule and bilateral superior longitudinal fasciculus had significantly decreased mean CCs with GM in MWoA. On the other hand, 16 GM regions had significantly decreased mean CCs with WM in MWoA, including some areas that are parts of the somatosensory regions, auditory cortex, temporal areas, frontal areas, cingulate cortex, and parietal cortex.Conclusion: Decreased functional connections between WM bundles and GM regions might contribute to disrupted functional connectivity between the parts of the pain processing pathway in MWoAs, which indicated that functional and connectivity abnormalities in cortical regions may not be limited to GM regions but are instead associated with functional abnormalities in WM tracts.


2022 ◽  
Vol 13 ◽  
Author(s):  
Giorgia Demaria ◽  
Azzurra Invernizzi ◽  
Daniel Ombelet ◽  
Joana C. Carvalho ◽  
Remco J. Renken ◽  
...  

In glaucoma participants, both structural and functional brain changes have been observed, but we still have insufficient understanding of how these changes also affect the integrity of cortical functional networks, and how these changes relate to visual function. This is relevant, as functional network integrity may affect the applicability of future treatments, as well as the options for rehabilitation or training. Here, we compare global and local functional connectivity in local and global brain networks between glaucoma and control participants. Moreover, we study the relationship between functional connectivity and visual field (VF) loss. For our study, 20 subjects with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and 24 age-similar healthy participants were recruited to undergo an ophthalmic assessment followed by two resting-state (RS) (f)MRI scans. For each scan and for each group, the ROIs with eigenvector centrality (EC) values higher than the 95th percentile were considered the most central brain regions (“hubs”). Hubs for which we found a significant difference in EC in both scans between glaucoma and healthy participants were considered to provide evidence for network changes. In addition, we tested the notion that a brain region's hub function in POAG might relate to the severity of a participant's VF defect, irrespective of which eye contributed mostly to this. To determine this, for each participant, eye-independent scores were derived for: (1) sensitivity of the worse eye – indicating disease severity, (2) sensitivity of both eyes combined – with one eye potentially compensating for loss in the other, or (3) difference in eye sensitivity – potentially requiring additional network interactions. By correlating each of these VF scores and the EC values, we assessed whether VF defects could be associated with centrality alterations in POAG. Our results show that no functional connectivity disruptions were found at the global brain level in POAG participants. This indicates that in glaucoma global brain network communication is preserved. Furthermore, for the Lingual Gyrus, identified as a brain hub, we found a positive correlation between the EC value and the VF sensitivity of both eyes combined. The fact that reduced local network functioning is associated with reduced binocular VF sensitivity suggests the presence of local brain reorganization that has a bearing on functional visual abilities.


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