resting state fmri
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2022 ◽  
Vol 97 ◽  
pp. 25-31
Karim Khoshgard ◽  
Meysam Siyah Mansoory ◽  
Hosna Nouri ◽  
Maria Clotilde H. Tavares ◽  
Carlos Tomaz ◽  

2022 ◽  
pp. 0271678X2210746
Ho-Ching (Shawn) Yang ◽  
Ben Inglis ◽  
Thomas M Talavage ◽  
Vidhya Vijayakrishnan Nair ◽  
Jinxia (Fiona) Yao ◽  

It is commonly believed that cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) movement is facilitated by blood vessel wall movements (i.e., hemodynamic oscillations) in the brain. A coherent pattern of low frequency hemodynamic oscillations and CSF movement was recently found during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep via functional MRI. This finding raises other fundamental questions: 1) the explanation of coupling between hemodynamic oscillations and CSF movement from fMRI signals; 2) the existence of the coupling during wakefulness; 3) the direction of CSF movement. In this resting state fMRI study, we proposed a mechanical model to explain the coupling between hemodynamics and CSF movement through the lens of fMRI. Time delays between CSF movement and global hemodynamics were calculated. The observed delays between hemodynamics and CSF movement match those predicted by the model. Moreover, by conducting separate fMRI scans of the brain and neck, we confirmed the low frequency CSF movement at the fourth ventricle is bidirectional. Our finding also demonstrates that CSF movement is facilitated by changes in cerebral blood volume mainly in the low frequency range, even when the individual is awake.

2022 ◽  
Ting-Kai Leung ◽  
Chia-Wei Li ◽  
Yu-Chun Lo ◽  
Ping-Yen Tsai ◽  
Jia-Yi Wang

Abstract There is still no clear explanation of the process of perceptual consciousness that connects our body with brain. Innovation on the technology of bioceramic has now advanced towards clinical applications, including rehabilitation of brain infarction, therapies of insomnia and migraine. To demonstrate how ‘resonant energy transfer through the bioceramic material with tempo sound and visible light spectrum’ (bioceramic material stimulation, BMS) non-invasively affects perceptual consciousness, we investigated the responses of participants to BMS on perceptual consciousness by questionnaire of subjective descriptions and analyzed resting state fMRI during BMS. There were 61.3% participants who were categorized as positive group with various types of perceptual consciousness. By setting a threshold value at ‘p<0.001’, enhanced connections of ‘parahippocampal gyrus to cerebellar lobule V’ and ‘angular gyrus to precuneus’ were found. However, decreased connection of ‘caudate nucleus to cerebellar lobule VIIb’ was found. We conclude that the most affected brain functions by BMS including somatosensory, audio-visual perception and social cognition. The analysis of functional connectivity during BMS may help us gain more knowledge of consciousness and related division of neuroscience in humans.

2022 ◽  
Marilena Wilding ◽  
Christof Koerner ◽  
Anja Ischebeck ◽  
Natalia Zaretskaya

The constructive nature of human perception sometimes leads us to perceiving rather complex impressions from simple sensory input. Bistable stimuli give us a rare opportunity to study the neural mechanisms behind this process. Such stimuli can be visually interpreted as simple or as more complex on the basis of the same sensory input. Previous studies demonstrated increased activity in the superior parietal cortex when participants perceived an illusory Gestalt impression compared to a simpler interpretation of individual elements. Here we tested whether activity related to the illusory Gestalt can be detected not only during, but also prior to it, by examining the slow fluctuations of resting-state-fMRI activity before the stimulus onset. We presented 31 participants with a bistable motion stimulus, which can be perceived either as four moving dot pairs (local) or two moving illusory squares (global). This allowed us to isolate the specific neural mechanisms that accompany the experience of an illusion under matched sensory input. fMRI was used to measure brain activity in a sparse event-related design. We observed stronger IPS and putamen responses to the stimulus when participants perceived the global interpretation compared to local, confirming the previously reported role of these areas in perceptual grouping. Most importantly, we also observed that the global stimulus interpretation was preceded by an increased activity of the bilateral dorsal insula, which is known to process saliency and gate information for conscious access. Our data suggest an important role of the dorsal insula in shaping an internally generated illusory Gestalt percept.

Matti Gärtner ◽  
Anne Weigand ◽  
Milan Scheidegger ◽  
Mick Lehmann ◽  
Patrik O. Wyss ◽  

AbstractKetamine exerts its rapid antidepressant effects via modulation of the glutamatergic system. While numerous imaging studies have investigated the effects of ketamine on a functional macroscopic brain level, it remains unclear how altered glutamate metabolism and changes in brain function are linked. To shed light on this topic we here conducted a multimodal imaging study in healthy volunteers (N = 23) using resting state fMRI and proton (1H) magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to investigate linkage between metabolic and functional brain changes induced by ketamine. Subjects were investigated before and during an intravenous ketamine infusion. The MRS voxel was placed in the pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pgACC), as this region has been repeatedly shown to be involved in ketamine’s effects. Our results showed functional connectivity changes from the pgACC to the right frontal pole and anterior mid cingulate cortex (aMCC). Absolute glutamate and glutamine concentrations in the pgACC did not differ significantly from baseline. However, we found that stronger pgACC activation during ketamine was linked to lower glutamine concentration in this region. Furthermore, reduced functional connectivity between pgACC and aMCC was related to increased pgACC activation and reduced glutamine. Our results thereby demonstrate how multimodal investigations in a single brain region could help to advance our understanding of the association between metabolic and functional changes.

2022 ◽  
Peter Kirk ◽  
Avram J Holmes ◽  
Oliver Joe Robinson

A well documented amygdala-dorsomedial prefrontal circuit is theorized to promote attention to threat (‘threat vigilance’). Prior research has implicated a relationship between individual differences in trait anxiety/vigilance, engagement of this circuitry, and anxiogenic features of the environment (e.g. through threat-of-shock and movie-watching). In the present study, we predicted that—for those scoring high in self-reported anxiety and a behavioral measure of threat vigilance—this circuitry is chronically engaged, even in the absence of anxiogenic stimuli. Our analyses of resting-state fMRI data (N=639) did not, however, provide evidence for such a relationship. Nevertheless, in our planned exploratory analyses, we saw a relationship between threat vigilance behavior (but not self-reported anxiety) and intrinsic amygdala-periaqueductal gray connectivity. Here, we suggest this subcortical circuitry may be chronically engaged in hypervigilant individuals, but that the amygdala-prefrontal circuitry may only be engaged in response to anxiogenic stimuli.

2022 ◽  
Jonas L Steinhäuser ◽  
Adam R Teed ◽  
Obada Al-Zoubi ◽  
René Hurlemann ◽  
Gang Chen ◽  

Differences in the correlated activity of networked brain regions have been reported in individuals with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) but an overreliance on the null-hypothesis significance testing (NHST) framework limits the identification and characterization of disorder-relevant relationships. In this preregistered study, we applied a Bayesian statistical framework as well as NHST to the analysis of resting-state fMRI scans from females with GAD and demographically matched healthy comparison females. Eleven a-priori hypotheses about functional correlativity (FC) were evaluated using Bayesian (multilevel model) and frequentist (t-test) inference. Reduced FC between the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and the posterior-mid insula (PMI) was confirmed by both statistical approaches. FC between the vmPFC-anterior insula, the amygdala-PMI, and the amygdala-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) region pairs did not survive multiple comparison correction using the frequentist approach. However, the Bayesian model provided evidence for these region pairs having decreased FC in the GAD group. Leveraging Bayesian modeling, we demonstrate decreased FC of the vmPFC, insula, amygdala, and dlPFC in females with GAD. Exploiting the Bayesian framework revealed FC abnormalities between region pairs excluded by the frequentist analysis, as well as other previously undescribed regions, demonstrating the benefits of applying this statistical approach to resting state FC data.

Arpita Sahu ◽  
Vineeth Kurki ◽  
Antariksh Vijan ◽  
Amit Janu ◽  
Prakash Shetty ◽  

Abstract Background The extent of resection for brain tumors is a critical factor in determining the oncologic outcome for a patient. However, a balance between preservation of neurological function and maximal resection is essential for true benefit.Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is one of the approaches that augments the neurosurgeon's ability to attain maximal safe resection by providing preoperative mapping. It may not be possible to perform awake craniotomy with intraoperative localization by direct cortical stimulation in all patients, such as children and those with neurocognitive impairment. Task-based fMRI may have limited value in these cases due to low patient cooperability. Methods In this article we present in a case-based format, the various clinical scenarios where resting state fMRI (rs-fMRI) can be helpful in guiding neurosurgical resection. rs-fMRI of the patients has been acquired on Philips 1.5 T system. Seed voxel method has been used for processing and analysis. Conclusion rs-fMRI does not require active patient cooperation to generate useful information and thus can be a promising tool in patients unable to cooperate for task-based studies.

2022 ◽  
Iva Ilioska ◽  
Marianne Oldehinkel ◽  
Alberto Llera ◽  
Sidhant Chopra ◽  
Tristan Looden ◽  

Neuroimaging studies on functional connectivity (FC) in autism have been hampered by small sample sizes and inconsistent findings with regard to whether connectivity is increased or decreased in individuals with autism, whether these alterations affect focal systems or reflect a brain-wide dysfunction, and whether these are age- and/or sex-dependent. The study included resting-state fMRI and clinical data from the LEAP and the ABIDE I and II initiatives, of 1824 (796 with autism) participants with age range 5-58 years. Between-group differences in FC were assessed, and associations between FC and clinical symptom ratings were investigated through canonical correlation analysis. Autism was associated with a brain-wide pattern of hypo- and hyperconnectivity. Hypoconnectivity predominantly affected sensory and higher-order attentional networks and correlated with social impairments, restrictive and repetitive behavior (RRB), and sensory processing. Hyperconnectivity was observed primarily between the default mode network and the rest of the brain, and between cortical and subcortical systems. This pattern was strongly associated with social impairments and sensory processing. Interactions between diagnosis and age or sex were not statistically significant. The FC alterations observed in this study, which primarily involve hypoconnectivity of primary sensory and attention networks and hyperconnectivity of the DMN and subcortex with the rest of the brain, do not appear to be age or sex-dependent and correlate with clinical dimensions of social difficulties, RRBs, and alterations in sensory processing. These findings suggest that the observed connectivity alterations are stable, trait-like features of autism that are related to the three main symptom domains.

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