network connectivity
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Penghui Song ◽  
Han Tong ◽  
Luyan Zhang ◽  
Hua Lin ◽  
Ningning Hu ◽  

Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) is a highly prevalent yet poorly understood chronic mental disorder. Previous studies have associated GAD with excessive activation of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). This study aimed to investigate the effect of low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (repetitive TMS, rTMS) targeting the right DLPFC on clinical symptoms and TMS-evoked time-varying brain network connectivity in patients with GAD. Eleven patients with GAD received 1 Hz rTMS treatment targeting the right DLPFC for 10 days. The severity of the clinical symptoms was evaluated using the Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA) and the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD) at baseline, right after treatment, and at the one-month follow-up. Co-registration of single-pulse TMS (targeting the right DLPFC) and electroencephalography (TMS-EEG) was performed pre- and post-treatment in these patients and 11 healthy controls. Time-varying brain network connectivity was analyzed using the adaptive directed transfer function. The scores of HAMA and HAMD significantly decreased after low-frequency rTMS treatment, and these improvements in ratings remained at the one-month follow-up. Analyses of the time-varying EEG network in the healthy controls showed a continuous weakened connection information outflow in the left frontal and mid-temporal regions. Compared with the healthy controls, the patients with GAD showed weakened connection information outflow in the left frontal pole and the posterior temporal pole at baseline. After 10-day rTMS treatment, the network patterns showed weakened connection information outflow in the left frontal and temporal regions. The time-varying EEG network changes induced by TMS perturbation targeting right DLPFC in patients with GAD were characterized by insufficient information outflow in the left frontal and temporal regions. Low-frequency rTMS targeting the right DLPFC reversed these abnormalities and improved the clinical symptoms of GAD.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Lei Yang ◽  
Qingmeng Liu ◽  
Yu Zhou ◽  
Xing Wang ◽  
Tongning Wu ◽  

Neurophysiological effect of human exposure to radiofrequency signals has attracted considerable attention, which was claimed to have an association with a series of clinical symptoms. A few investigations have been conducted on alteration of brain functions, yet no known research focused on intrinsic connectivity networks, an attribute that may relate to some behavioral functions. To investigate the exposure effect on functional connectivity between intrinsic connectivity networks, we conducted experiments with seventeen participants experiencing localized head exposure to real and sham time-division long-term evolution signal for 30 min. The resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data were collected before and after exposure, respectively. Group-level independent component analysis was used to decompose networks of interest. Three states were clustered, which can reflect different cognitive conditions. Dynamic connectivity as well as conventional connectivity between networks per state were computed and followed by paired sample t-tests. Results showed that there was no statistical difference in static or dynamic functional network connectivity in both real and sham exposure conditions, and pointed out that the impact of short-term electromagnetic exposure was undetected at the ICNs level. The specific brain parcellations and metrics used in the study may lead to different results on brain modulation.

2022 ◽  
Yao Gong ◽  
Gaurav Behera ◽  
Luke Erber ◽  
Ang Luo ◽  
Yue Chen

Proline hydroxylation (Hyp) regulates protein structure, stability and protein-protein interaction and is widely involved in diverse metabolic and physiological pathways in cells and diseases. To reveal functional features of the proline hydroxylation proteome, we integrated various data sources for deep proteome profiling of proline hydroxylation proteome in human and developed HypDB (, an annotated database and web server for proline hydroxylation proteome. HypDB provides site-specific evidence of modification based on extensive LC-MS analysis and literature mining with 15319 non-redundant Hyp sites and 8226 sites with high confidence on human proteins. Annotation analysis revealed significant enrichment of proline hydroxylation on key functional domains and tissue-specific distribution of Hyp abundance across 26 types of human organs and fluids and 6 cell lines. The network connectivity analysis further revealed a critical role of proline hydroxylation in mediating protein-protein interactions. Moreover, the spectral library generated by HypDB enabled data-independent analysis (DIA) of clinical tissues and the identification of novel Hyp biomarkers in lung cancer and kidney cancer. Taken together, our integrated analysis of human proteome with publicly accessible HypDB revealed functional diversity of Hyp substrates and provides a quantitative data source to characterize proline hydroxylation in pathways and diseases.

Roberta B. Nowak ◽  
Haleh Alimohamadi ◽  
Kersi Pestonjamasp ◽  
Padmini Rangamani ◽  
Velia M. Fowler

Red blood cell (RBC) shape and deformability are supported by a planar network of short actin filament (F-actin) nodes (∼37 nm length, 15-18 subunits) interconnected by long spectrin strands at the inner surface of the plasma membrane. Spectrin-F-actin network structure underlies quantitative modeling of forces controlling RBC shape, membrane curvature and deformation, yet the nanoscale organization and dynamics of the F-actin nodes in situ is not well understood. We examined F-actin distribution and dynamics in RBCs using fluorescent-phalloidin labeling of F-actin imaged by multiple microscopy modalities. Total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) and Zeiss Airyscan confocal microscopy demonstrate that F-actin is concentrated in multiple brightly stained F-actin foci ∼200-300 nm apart interspersed with dimmer F-actin staining regions. Single molecule STORM imaging of Alexa-647-phalloidin-labeled F-actin and computational analysis also indicates an irregular, non-random distribution of F-actin nodes. Treatment of RBCs with LatA and CytoD indicates F-actin foci distribution depends on actin polymerization, while live cell imaging reveals dynamic local motions of F-actin foci, with lateral movements, appearance and disappearance. Regulation of F-actin node distribution and dynamics via actin assembly/disassembly pathways and/or via local extension and retraction of spectrin strands may provide a new mechanism to control spectrin-F-actin network connectivity, RBC shape and membrane deformability.

Nerine Joewondo ◽  
Valeria Garbin ◽  
Ronny Pini

AbstractUnderstanding the evolution of solute concentration gradients underpins the prediction of porous media processes limited by mass transfer. Here, we present the development of a mathematical model that describes the dissolution of spherical bubbles in two-dimensional regular pore networks. The model is solved numerically for lattices with up to 169 bubbles by evaluating the role of pore network connectivity, vacant lattice sites and the initial bubble size distribution. In dense lattices, diffusive shielding prolongs the average dissolution time of the lattice, and the strength of the phenomenon depends on the network connectivity. The extension of the final dissolution time relative to the unbounded (bulk) case follows the power-law function, $${B^k/\ell }$$ B k / ℓ , where the constant $$\ell$$ ℓ is the inter-bubble spacing, B is the number of bubbles, and the exponent k depends on the network connectivity. The solute concentration field is both the consequence and a factor affecting bubble dissolution or growth. The geometry of the pore network perturbs the inward propagation of the dissolution front and can generate vacant sites within the bubble lattice. This effect is enhanced by increasing the lattice size and decreasing the network connectivity, yielding strongly nonuniform solute concentration fields. Sparse bubble lattices experience decreased collective effects, but they feature a more complex evolution, because the solute concentration field is nonuniform from the outset.

Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 579
Na-Eun Park ◽  
So-Hyun Park ◽  
Ye-Sol Oh ◽  
Jung-Hyun Moon ◽  
Il-Gu Lee

Considering the increasing scale and severity of damage from recent cybersecurity incidents, the need for fundamental solutions to external security threats has increased. Hence, network separation technology has been designed to stop the leakage of information by separating business computing networks from the Internet. However, security accidents have been continuously occurring, owing to the degradation of data transmission latency performance between the networks, decreasing the convenience and usability of the work environment. In a conventional centralized network connection concept, a problem occurs because if either usability or security is strengthened, the other is weakened. In this study, we proposed a distributed authentication mechanism for secure network connectivity (DAM4SNC) technology in a distributed network environment that requires security and latency performance simultaneously to overcome the trade-off limitations of existing technology. By communicating with separated networks based on the authentication between distributed nodes, the inefficiency of conventional centralized network connection solutions is overcome. Moreover, the security is enhanced through periodic authentication of the distributed nodes and differentiation of the certification levels. As a result of the experiment, the relative efficiency of the proposed scheme (REP) was about 420% or more in all cases.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Dhrubajyoti Biswas ◽  
Sayan Gupta

AbstractThe phenomenon of ageing transitions (AT) in a Erdős–Rényi network of coupled Rulkov neurons is studied with respect to parameters modelling network connectivity, coupling strength and the fractional ratio of inactive neurons in the network. A general mean field coupling is proposed to model the neuronal interactions. A standard order parameter is defined for quantifying the network dynamics. Investigations are undertaken for both the noise free network as well as stochastic networks, where the interneuronal coupling strength is assumed to be superimposed with additive noise. The existence of both smooth and explosive AT are observed in the parameter space for both the noise free and the stochastic networks. The effects of noise on AT are investigated and are found to play a constructive role in mitigating the effects of inactive neurons and reducing the parameter regime in which explosive AT is observed.

Andrey Makashov ◽  
Andrew Makhorin ◽  
Maxim Terentiev

A wireless sensor network (WSN) of a tree-like topology is considered, which performs measurements and transmits their results to the consumer. Under the interference influence, the WSN nodes transmitters low power makes the transmitted information vulnerable, which leads to significant data loss. To reduce the data loss during transmission, a noise-immune WSN model is proposed. Such a WSN, having detected a stable connection absence between a pair of nodes, transfers the interaction between these nodes to a radio channel free from interference influence. For this, the model, in addition to forming a network and transferring application data, provides for checking the communication availability based on the keep-alive mechanism and restoring the network with a possible channel change. A feature point of the proposed approach is the ability to restore network connectivity when exposed to interference of significant power and duration, which makes it impossible to exchange service messages on the channel selected for the interaction of nodes. To support the model, work algorithms and data structures have been developed, indicators have been formalized to assess an anti-jamming system work quality.

Duyan Geng ◽  
Zeyu Gao ◽  
Yan Wang ◽  
Zhaoxu Qin ◽  
Geng Pang ◽  

Hippocampal atrophy and neuron loss are common symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The hippocampal region is well known for producing oscillations at different frequency bands due to the neuronal network architecture. However, the mechanism of Ripple high frequency variation in hippocampal region with the course of AD disease has not been correctly assessed. We proposed time-frequency analysis using wavelet transform and constructing Granger causality network to analyze the characteristics of Hippocampal sharp wave-ripple (SPW-R) complexes in APP/PS1 mice at different cognitive levels. We use wavelet transform to overcome the shortcoming that the traditional Short Time Fourier Transform cannot deal with the unsteady signal frequency, and construct the Granger causality network to verify our results. By analyzing ripple frequency band energy changes and directional transfer function matrix in hippocampal CA1 region of mice with different cognitive levels, we found that the loss of ripple high frequency energy and decreased network connectivity in hippocampal CA1 region of APP/PS1 mice were correlated with the degree of memory loss. We believe that from mild dementia to severe dementia. The decreased cell activity in APP/PS1 mouse CA1 region leads to changes in Ripple high-frequency time-frequency energy and network connectivity for theoretical reasons. Our results provide support for assessing cognitive loss in APP/PS1 mice from the perspective of Ripple high frequency in hippocampus CA1 region.

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