model based control
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Miriam Sebold ◽  
Hao Chen ◽  
Aleyna Önal ◽  
Sören Kuitunen-Paul ◽  
Negin Mojtahedzadeh ◽  

Background: Prejudices against minorities can be understood as habitually negative evaluations that are kept in spite of evidence to the contrary. Therefore, individuals with strong prejudices might be dominated by habitual or “automatic” reactions at the expense of more controlled reactions. Computational theories suggest individual differences in the balance between habitual/model-free and deliberative/model-based decision-making.Methods: 127 subjects performed the two Step task and completed the blatant and subtle prejudice scale.Results: By using analyses of choices and reaction times in combination with computational modeling, subjects with stronger blatant prejudices showed a shift away from model-based control. There was no association between these decision-making processes and subtle prejudices.Conclusion: These results support the idea that blatant prejudices toward minorities are related to a relative dominance of habitual decision-making. This finding has important implications for developing interventions that target to change prejudices across societies.

2021 ◽  
Sarah M. Tashjian ◽  
Toby Wise ◽  
dean mobbs

Protection, or the mitigation of harm, often involves the capacity to prospectively plan the actions needed to combat a threat. The computational architecture of decisions involving protection remains unclear, as well as whether these decisions differ from other positive prospective actions. Here we examine effects of valence and context by comparing protection to reward, which occurs in a different context but is also positively valenced, and punishment, which also occurs in an aversive context but differs in valence. We applied computational modeling across three independent studies (Total N=600) using five iterations of a ‘two-step’ behavioral task to examine model-based reinforcement learning for protection, reward, and punishment in humans. Decisions motivated by acquiring safety via protection evoked a higher degree of model-based control than acquiring reward and avoiding punishment, with no significant differences in learning rate. The context-valence asymmetry characteristic of protection increased deployment of flexible decision strategies, suggesting model-based control depends on the context in which outcomes are encountered as well as the valence of the outcome.

2021 ◽  
M. Mordmuller ◽  
V. Kleyman ◽  
M. Schaller ◽  
M. Wilson ◽  
K. Worthmann ◽  

Energy ◽  
2021 ◽  
pp. 123030
Zhiyuan Wei ◽  
Shuguang Zhang ◽  
Soheil Jafari ◽  
Theoklis Nikolaidis

Energy ◽  
2021 ◽  
pp. 123009
Rafał Stanisławski ◽  
Robert Junga ◽  
Marek Nitsche

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-18
Takeshi D. Itoh ◽  
Koji Ishihara ◽  
Jun Morimoto

Model-based control has great potential for use in real robots due to its high sampling efficiency. Nevertheless, dealing with physical contacts and generating accurate motions are inevitable for practical robot control tasks, such as precise manipulation. For a real-time, model-based approach, the difficulty of contact-rich tasks that requires precise movement lies in the fact that a model needs to accurately predict forthcoming contact events within a limited length of time rather than detect them afterward with sensors. Therefore, in this study, we investigate whether and how neural network models can learn a task-related model useful enough for model-based control, that is, a model predicting future states, including contact events. To this end, we propose a structured neural network model predicting a control (SNN-MPC) method, whose neural network architecture is designed with explicit inertia matrix representation. To train the proposed network, we develop a two-stage modeling procedure for contact-rich dynamics from a limited number of samples. As a contact-rich task, we take up a trackball manipulation task using a physical 3-DoF finger robot. The results showed that the SNN-MPC outperformed MPC with a conventional fully connected network model on the manipulation task.

2021 ◽  
Hareesh Konanki ◽  
Alexander Elbel ◽  
Benedikt Schmidt ◽  
Sairam Nandyala ◽  
Alfons Noe ◽  

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