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Atmosphere ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 128
Zhonggen Li ◽  
Yiming Huang ◽  
Xinyu Li ◽  
Guan Wang ◽  
Qingfeng Wang ◽  

Atmospheric emission of heavy metals from different anthropogenic sources is a great concern to human beings due to their toxicities. In order to disclose the emission levels and the distribution patterns of zinc (Zn) in the modern cement industry with respect to its low boiling point (~900 °C) comparing to the high-temperature (1450 °C) clinker production process, solid samples representing the input and output flow of Zn during the entire production process in two preheater–precalciner cement plants (CPs) were collected and analyzed. For the first time, it was found that the behaviour of Zn inside different precalciner CPs was similar despite a huge difference in the Zn inputs to the CPs; namely, almost all the Zn input was output in clinker, which was then mixed with different additives and retarder to make cement products. The high-temperature clinkerisation process would incorporate Zn into the aluminosilicate of clinker. As a result, there was no enrichment of Zn during clinker production and the atmospheric emission factor was relatively low at 0.002%, or 1.28–9.39 mg Zn·t−1 clinker. Our result for the atmospheric Zn emissions from CPs was much lower than most previous reports, implying the CPs were not a crucial Zn emission source. However, the higher load of Zn in some raw/alternative materials—like nonferrous smelting slag with a Zn content of ~2%—could greatly increase the content of Zn in clinker and cement products. Therefore, further investigation on the environmental stability of Zn in such Zn-laden cement and concrete should be carried out.

Atmosphere ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 121
Ji-Hyeon Kim ◽  
Jin-Ho Kim ◽  
Hyo-Sik Kim ◽  
Hyun-Ji Kim ◽  
Suk-Hwan Kang ◽  

As climates change around the world, concern regarding environmental pollutants emitted into the atmosphere is increasing. The cement industry consistently produces more than 4000 million metric tons of cement per year. However, the problem of air pollutants being emitted from the calcination process is becoming more critical because their amount increases proportionally with cement production. Each country has established regulatory standards for pollutant emission. Accordingly, the cement industry is equipped with facilities to reduce air pollutants, one of which is the NOx removal process. NOx reduction processes under combustion conditions are modified to minimize NOx generation, and the generated NOx is removed through post-treatment. In terms of NOx removal efficiency, the post-treatment process effectively changes the combustion conditions during calcination. Selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) processes are post-treatment environmental facilities for NOx reduction. Accordingly, considering the stringent NOx emission standards in the cement industry, SNCR is essential, and SCR is selectively applied. Therefore, this paper introduces nitrogen oxide among air pollutants emitted from the South Korean cement industry and summarizes the technologies adapted to mitigate the emission of NOx by cement companies in South Korea.

2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Daniel Ashagrie Tegegne ◽  
Daniel Kitaw Azene ◽  
Eshetie Berhan Atanaw

PurposeThis study aims to design a multivariate control chart that improves the applicability of the traditional Hotelling T2 chart. This new type of multivariate control chart displays sufficient information about the states and relationships of the variables in the production process. It is used to make better quality control decisions during the production process.Design/methodology/approachMultivariate data are collected at an equal time interval and are represented by nodes of the graph. The edges connecting the nodes represent the sequence of operation. Each node is plotted on the control chart based on their Hotelling T2 statistical distance. The changing behavior of each pair of input and output nodes is studied by the neural network. A case study from the cement industry is conducted to validate the control chart.FindingsThe finding of this paper is that the points and lines in the classic Hotelling T2 chart are effectively substituted by nodes and edges of the graph respectively. Nodes and edges have dimension and color and represent several attributes. As a result, this control chart displays much more information than the traditional Hotelling T2 control chart. The pattern of the plot represents whether the process is normal or not. The effect of the sequence of operation is visible in the control chart. The frequency of the happening of nodes is recognized by the size of nodes. The decision to change the product feature is assisted by finding the shortest path between nodes. Moreover, consecutive nodes have different behaviors, and that behavior change is recognized by neural network.Originality/valueModifying the classical Hotelling T2 control chart by integrating with the concept of graph theory and neural network is new of its kind.

Nisrine El Fami ◽  
Hind Agourrame ◽  
Nacer Khachani ◽  
Ali Boukhari ◽  
Adeljebbar Diouri

The Moroccan cement industry is looking for new processes to effectively minimize the high energy costs associated to cement manufacturing. This work presents the effect of three types of limestone with different chemical compositions and different CaCO3 contents on the physical and mechanical properties of resulting composite cements by the addition of fly ash in the proportions by weight of: 5 % and 10 %. The samples are studied in order to evaluate the interaction between different types of limestone and fly ash. Ternary cements based on fly ash-limestone-clinker induce a significant prolongation of the setting time compared to binary cements based on limestone-clinker. The substitution of clinker by limestone induces an improvement in mechanical strength compared to ternary cements in the first days; at 28 days, cements prepared with fly ashes reach significant strength due to their pozzolanic reaction.

Cuihong Chen ◽  
Ruochong Xu ◽  
Dan Tong ◽  
Xinying Qin ◽  
Jing Cheng ◽  

Abstract Global industrialization and urbanization processes enabled a diverse cement production boom over the past three decades, as cement is the most important building construction material. Consequently, the cement industry is the second-largest industrial CO2 emitter (~25% of global industrial CO2 emissions) globally. In this study, the Global Cement Emission Database, which encompasses anthropogenic CO2 emissions of individual production units worldwide for 1990-2019, was developed. A recently developed unit-level China Cement Emission Database is then applied to override China’s data and the combination of two database is used to reveal the unit characteristics of CO2 emissions and ages for global cement plants, assess large disparities in national and regional CO2 emissions, growth rates and developmental stages from 1990-2019, and identify key emerging countries of carbon emissions and commitment. This study finds that globally, CO2 emissions from the cement industry have increased from 0.86 Gt in 1990 to 2.46 Gt in 2019 (increasing by 186%). More importantly, the large CO2 emissions and the striking growth rates from those emerging countries, including most of developing countries in Asia and the Middle East and Africa, are clearly identified. For example, the Middle East and Africa, including mostly developing or underdeveloped countries, only represented 0.07 Gt CO2 in 1990 (8.4% of the total), in contrast to 0.26 Gt (10.4% of the total) CO2 in 2019, which is a 4.5% average growth rate during 1990-2019. Further, the intensive expansion of large and new facilities since 2005 in Asia and the Middle East and Africa has resulted in heavy commitment (90.1% of global commitment in 2019), and mitigation threats in the future considering their increasing emissions (national annual growth rate can be up to >80%) and growing infrastructure construction (~50% of clinker capacity operating ≤10 years). Our results highlight the cement industry’s development and young infrastructure in emerging economies; thus, future increasing cement demand and corresponding carbon commitment would pose great challenges to future decarbonization and climate change mitigation.

SS Keykhosravi ◽  
F Nejadkoorki ◽  
Amin Toosi

Introduction: Nowadays, the cement industry is regarded as one of the most important air pollution industries globally. This study aimed to simulate the emission of NOx, CO, SO2, and PM pollutants caused by the Sabzevar Cement Factory chimney by SCREEN3 software.  Materials and Methods: In this study, the SCREEN3 software was employed for the distribution of NOx, CO, SO2, and PM pollutants. The inputs of the model include the concentration and emission of pollutant gases, physical factors associated with the cement factory chimney, wind speed and direction, ambient temperature, and stability classes.  Results: The results of this study indicated that the maximum concentrations of NOx, CO, SO2, and PM by the SCREEN3 software occurred in unstable weather conditions (B) and wind speed of 5 m.s. The highest concentrations of NOx, CO, and PM (use of gas) were at a distance of 1400 meters from the factory chimney with the rates of 0.9, 0.32, 6.2 μg.m³, respectively. Moreover, the highest concentrations of NOx, CO, SO2, and PM (using fuel oil) were predicted at a distance of 1100 m from the factory chimney with 19.5, 360, 9, and 7.9 μg.m³, respectively. A comparison of the obtained results with the standard of the Environmental Protection Agency of Iran (EPA) revealed that the concentrations of NOx, CO, SO2, and PM were not higher than the standards.  Conclusion: The comparison of results with EPA standard and Iranian clean air standard showed that NOX, CO, SO2, and PM concentrations were not higher than standards during the sampling period.

2022 ◽  
pp. 100180
José J. Fierro ◽  
Cristian Hernández-Gómez ◽  
Carlos A. Marenco-Porto ◽  
César Nieto-Londoño ◽  
Ana Escudero-Atehortua ◽  

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