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Updated Friday, 30 July 2021

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Ana Filipa Silva ◽  
José Afonso ◽  
Hugo Sarmento ◽  
Sixto González-Víllora ◽  
Juan Carlos Pastor Vicedo ◽  
...  

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Georgia Cook ◽  
Paul Gringras ◽  
Harriet Hiscock ◽  
Deb K. Pal ◽  
Luci Wiggs

Many of the same sleep problems seen in typically developing (TD) children are frequently experienced by children with epilepsy (CWE). Behavioural sleep interventions (BSIs) are commonly and successfully used to treat these sleep problems in TD children and in some neurodevelopmental disorder populations. Therefore, BSIs should be effective in CWE, however, there are special seizure-related considerations for CWE and their parents which may be salient to consider in any future BSI development for this group. The current study sought to identify, from parents, if there were special considerations for the content and delivery of an online BSI for parents of CWE. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with nine mothers of CWE and thematic analysis was conducted on the interview data. Ten themes were apparent which represented what parents wanted from any online BSI for CWE. Parents wanted (i) other parents’ views and real-life experiences to be included, (ii) recognition of how changes over time may influence the appropriateness of using various sleep-management options, (iii) to be presented with a range of sleep management options from which they could select, (iv) personalised information and suggestions for behaviour-change options, (v) help to address child anxiety around sleep, (vi) for the advice and behaviour-change options to be practical, (vii) general educational information about sleep and the relationship between sleep and epilepsy, (viii) for parental worries and concerns to be acknowledged, (ix) to receive help, support, and reassurance around children’s sleep; and (x) to include the child in the intervention. It was clear that any online BSI would require specific adaptations and additions (to content and delivery format) to best meet the needs of parents of CWE. It is hoped that having identified what parents want from on online BSI for CWE will allow these factors to be acknowledged in future intervention development, with the intention to optimise parental engagement and intervention effectiveness. Practical suggestions for how these aspects could be integrated into any online BSI are suggested.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
José Álvarez-García ◽  
María de la Cruz del Río-Rama ◽  
Cristiana Oliveira ◽  
Amador Durán-Sánchez

The aim of this research is to contrast an explanatory model of how the perceived organizational image of a university center (faculty) influences its students' loyalty. The data is obtained from a structured survey of students in Spain, obtaining a sample of 224 valid questionnaires. The methodology used is exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis to validate the measurement scales and the estimation of the model is carried out by applying Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). The results show that organizational image is the key variable to influence students' decision to continue taking new courses at the center, as well as to recommend it to other people. It is observed that the greater students' positive perception of the organizational image is, the greater their satisfaction with the center will be, which results in a higher level of loyalty to the center in which they study. However, their identification levels with the center is not a relevant variable in the process of increasing loyalty.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Alexander Aguirre Montero ◽  
José Antonio López-Sánchez

This systematic review adopts a formal and structured approach to review the intersection of data science and smart tourism destinations in terms of components found in previous research. The study period corresponds to 1995–2021 focusing the analysis mainly on the last years (2015–2021), identifying and characterizing the current trends on this research topic. The review comprises documentary research based on bibliometric and conceptual analysis, using the VOSviewer and SciMAT software to analyze articles from the Web of Science database. There is growing interest in this research topic, with more than 300 articles published annually. Data science technologies on which current smart destinations research is based include big data, smart data, data analytics, social media, cloud computing, the internet of things (IoT), smart card data, geographic information system (GIS) technologies, open data, artificial intelligence, and machine learning. Critical research areas for data science techniques and technologies in smart destinations are public tourism marketing, mobility-accessibility, and sustainability. Data analysis techniques and technologies face unprecedented challenges and opportunities post-coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) to build on the huge amount of data and a new tourism model that is more sustainable, smarter, and safer than those previously implemented.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Zhixia Chen ◽  
Mei Sun

Leadership ostracism widely exists in all types of organizations, yet specific study regarding this trend is limited. With this study, we explore the influencing mechanisms of leadership ostracism through case interview based on literature analysis and grounded theory. Results show that leadership ostracism is the integration of a triadic interaction process between subordinate performance, leadership characteristics, and organizational environment. Based on Padilla's destructive leadership toxic triangle model, we constructed a toxic triangle model of leadership ostracism. Through comparison, we found that these two triad models overlap in the areas of narcissism and power consciousness of supervisors, the self-concept of subordinates, and the management system of situational factors, indicating that leadership ostracism is itself a type of destructive leadership. In addition, the uniqueness, and differences in leadership ostracism are reflected in the model, including stereotypes, and results orientation of supervisors, political skills, job performance, and cognitive style of subordinates, the power distance, Chaxu climate, and organizational politics of the situational elements. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed in the research field that provides prospects for future orientation.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Jennifer E. Khoury ◽  
Hargun Kaur ◽  
Andrea Gonzalez

Children are at high risk for negative COVID-19 related outcomes. The present longitudinal study assessed (1) changes in child internalizing and externalizing problems from before to during the pandemic and (2) whether parent mental health (depression, anxiety, stress) or parenting behavior during COVID-19 were associated with changes in child mental health problems. Sixty eight mother-child dyads participated in this study. Children were approximately five years-old at the time of enrollment and were between the ages of 7–9 years old at the time of the follow-up survey. Parenting behavior, parental depression, anxiety, perceived stress and child internalizing and externalizing problems were measured using validated questionnaires. Children experienced greater internalizing (t = 6.46, p < 0.001) and externalizing (t = 6.13, p < 0.001) problems during the pandemic compared to before the pandemic. After taking into account child gender and COVID-related stressors, parental hostility was uniquely associated with greater changes in externalizing problems (β = 0.355, SE = 0.178, p < 0.05), while maternal anxiety was associated with greater increases in internalizing problems (β = 0.513, SE = 0.208, p < 0.05). Findings highlight the need for mental health supports for families to limit the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on child and parent mental health.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Hyunji Kim ◽  
Arnd Florack

The present research investigated a backfiring effect of social interaction on well-being and general confidence in Western populations during the COVID-19 pandemic. Across two studies, we observed that stronger self-other connectedness and frequent social communication with others during the first few weeks into the quarantine period were associated with worsened well-being and decreased general confidence. In Study 1 (n = 331), we showed that people who reported higher social connectedness and more frequent social interaction experienced declined well-being. In Study 2 (n = 327), we replicated the backfiring effect and showed that those who engaged in frequent social interaction, especially in COVID-19 related conversations, reported decreased general confidence, which mediated the accelerating effect of social interaction on panic buying. Overall, our findings indicated that frequent social interaction under a highly novel and uncertain crisis can relate to negative consequences on mental health and behavior.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Kota Suzuki

Sequential congruency effects are observed in interference tasks, in which reaction times (RTs) are shorter for congruent stimuli preceded by congruent (cC) than incongruent stimuli (iC), and RTs are longer for incongruent stimuli preceded by congruent (cI) than incongruent stimuli (iI). These effects are interpreted as resulting from incongruent stimuli triggering attentional control in the next trial, which reduces cognitive control. This study aimed to examine sequential congruency effects on event-related potential (ERP) components for Go- and Nogo-stimuli. We used the hybrid reverse Stroop Go/Nogo task. The stimuli were Kanji characters, “赤” (i.e., red) and “青” (i.e., blue) painted in congruent and incongruent colors. Participants responded to one of the two characters (i.e, the Go-stimulus) and stopped responding to the other character (i.e., the Nogo-stimulus). The results indicated that the Nogo-N1 was reduced by trials preceded by incongruent stimuli compared with congruent ones, suggesting that color processing was inhibited by attentional control; however, there was no reduction in the Go-N1. In addition, the Nogo-N2 amplitudes were larger for cI than iI and iC than cC. On the other hand, the Go-N2 was not modulated by sequential modulation effects, which was lower for incongruent stimuli than congruent stimuli. These results indicate that the Nogo-N2 is involved in cognitive control, whereas the Go-N2 is associated with selection processing. These findings suggest that the modulation of sequential congruency effects of N1 and N2 required the response inhibition task demand; however, Go-P3 and Nogo-P3 amplitudes were the largest for cI. Therefore, the time range of ERP components might be related to the susceptibility of an interaction effect between response inhibition task demand and sequential congruency effects.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Sharon H. X. Lu ◽  
Hanita A. Assudani ◽  
Tammie R. R. Kwek ◽  
Shaun W. H. Ng ◽  
Trisha E. L. Teoh ◽  
...  

This study examined the efficacy and acceptability of a hybrid, clinician-guided internet-based Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (iCBT) programme for outpatients with depression in a psychiatric hospital in Singapore. Fifty three participants were randomly assigned to a treatment or wait-list control group before they underwent a cross-over of conditions. Treatment consisted of a 4-week iCBT with three face-to-face sessions. 60.9% of participants who received treatment completed all six modules. Intention-to-treat analysis showed treatment was associated with significant reductions in symptoms of depression, anxiety and psychological distress but not in functional impairment, while the control condition was not associated with changes in any measures. These reductions had moderate to large effect sizes (ESs) for symptoms of depression and anxiety, and moderate ES for psychological distress. The between-group difference in depression score had a moderate ES. There was a significant between-group treatment effect in depressive symptoms, but not in the other measures. Treatment gains were maintained at 3-month follow-up. Most of the participants were highly satisfied with the programme, with 90 percent stating they would recommend it. This is the first RCT to provide preliminary evidence for the efficacy and acceptability of iCBT for depression in Singapore.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Ståle Pallesen ◽  
Eirunn Thun ◽  
Siri Waage ◽  
Øystein Vedaa ◽  
Anette Harris ◽  
...  

The traits languidity (tendency to become tired/sleepy upon losing sleep) and flexibility (ability to sleep and work at odd times) have been implicated in shift work tolerance. However, there is a dearth of knowledge about their temporal stability. The aim of the present study was to explore these traits during a long follow-up (FU) period and identify factors related to potential changes in trait scores over time. In all, 1,652 nurses completed the Circadian Type Inventory-revised (CTI-r), which measures languidity and flexibility, at both 2008/2009 (baseline, BL) and again in 2016 (FU). The latent scores of these two constructs at BL, in addition to age, sex, childcare responsibility, marital status, night work status, and insomnia status, were regressed on the corresponding latent scores at follow-up using a structural equation modeling (SEM) approach. Stability was found for both languidity (rho = 0.59) and flexibility (rho = 0.58). Both composite scores declined significantly from baseline (20.62 and 12.48) to follow-up (19.96 and 11.77). Languidity at baseline was positively associated with languidity at follow-up (β = 0.89, p < 0.009). Undertaking childcare responsibility between baseline and follow-up was inversely related to languidity at follow-up (β = −0.09, p < 0.05). Starting night work was positively related to languidity at follow-up (β = 0.06, p < 0.05). Developing insomnia between baseline and follow-up (β = 0.15, p < 0.05) was positively, whereas remitting from insomnia during the same period was negatively (β = −0.11, p < 0.01) associated with languidity at follow-up. Flexibility at baseline was positively associated with flexibility at follow-up (β = 0.64, p < 0.05). Having childcare responsibility at baseline, but not at follow-up was inversely related to flexibility at follow-up (β = −0.05 p < 0.05). Becoming cohabitant with a partner between baseline and follow-up (β = −0.07, p < 0.05) was negatively associated with flexibility at follow-up. Starting night work between baseline and follow-up (β = 0.17, p < 0.01) and reporting night work at both baseline and follow-up (β = 0.18, p < 0.01) were both positively associated with flexibility at follow-up, whereas stopping working nights was negatively (β = −0.09, p < 0.05), associated with flexibility at follow-up. The personality traits languidity and flexibility show fairly high stability, albeit the mean scores were significantly reduced during the 7–8 years follow-up period. The results suggest that these personality traits are partly modifiable.


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