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2022 ◽  
Carmen Lișman ◽  

Marital infidelity is both socially perceived as immoral and very frequent. This contradiction might be explained through the process of moral disengagement, specifically by the use of certain socially shared moral justifications of infidelity, which consequently foster unfaithful behavior. This research developed and examined the Infidelity Moral Disengagement Scale (IMDS), aiming to capture the strategies of morally legitimizing infidelity used among people engaged in marital relationships. Across two studies (total N = 609 married participants) we investigated the dimensions and psychometric properties of the IMDS. Results showed that the dominant strategies of legitimizing marital infidelity are the diffusion of responsibility, the attribution of blame on the cheated partner, advantageous comparisons with other immoral acts, justifying infidelity through certain benefits, and minimizing its negative consequences. The IMDS emerged as negatively related to moral identity and strongly associated to people’s past infidelity and to their tendency to engage in unfaithful behaviors.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 85
Danguolė Bridžiuvienė ◽  
Vita Raudonienė ◽  
Jurgita Švedienė ◽  
Algimantas Paškevičius ◽  
Ieva Baužienė ◽  

Microbial-based biostimulants that increase plant performance and ensure sustainable restoration of degraded soils are of great importance. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the growth promotion ability of indigenous Trichoderma ghanense, T. tomentosum and their complex on early rye seedlings in sustained grassland and arable soil. The impact of soil chemical properties on the ability of selected Trichoderma strains and their complex to promote plant growth was determined by the evaluation of the rye (Secale cereale L.) early seedling growth—measuring the length of shoots and roots as well as their dry weight. Trichoderma species were tested for their ability to produce extracellular degradative enzymes on solid media. Furthermore, the soil properties and CM-cellulase activity of soil were estimated. The indigenous Trichoderma strains possess the capacity to produce enzymes such as peroxidase, laccase, tyrosinase, and endoglucanase. The results indicated a significant (p < 0.05) increase in plant growth and the improvement of some soil chemical properties (total N, mobile humic and fulvic acids, exchangeable K2O, soil CM-cellulase activity) in inoculated soils when compared to the control. The growth of the roots of rye seedlings in sustained grassland was enhanced when T. tomentosum was applied (p = 0.005). There was an increase in total weight and shoot weight of rye seedlings when T. ghanense was used in the arable soil (p = 0.014 and p = 0.024). The expected beneficial effect of Trichoderma spp. complex on rye growth promotion was not observed in any tested soil. The results could find application in the development of new and efficient biostimulants, since not only do physiological characteristics of fungi play an important role but also the quality of the soil has an impact.

Fei Teng ◽  
Jiaxin Shi ◽  
Xijing Wang ◽  
Zhansheng Chen

The ongoing coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has had a profound impact on people’s wellbeing. Here, we proposed that an individual characteristic might be associated with wellbeing; that is, materialism. Specifically, we conducted three studies (total N = 3219) to examine whether people with high levels of materialism would experience poorer wellbeing (i.e., anxiety and depression, in the current case). The results showed that materialism was positively associated with depression (Studies 1A, 1B and 2) and anxiety (Study 2). Moreover, such a relationship was mediated by people’s perceived threat of COVID-19 (Study 2). These findings were observed in both Chinese and American people. The findings are discussed in terms of their theoretical and practical contributions.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Francisco J. L. Gordillo ◽  
Raquel Carmona ◽  
Carlos Jiménez

Continuous winter darkness at a latitude of 79°N was simulated in cultures of four species of Arctic seaweeds at 3 and 8°C. The laminarians Saccharina latissima and Alaria esculenta, and the rhodophytes Phycodrys rubens and Ptilota gunneri were monitored for 4 months in total darkness and after 1 week following light return in early spring, under controlled laboratory conditions. Biomass loss during darkness was enhanced by the high temperature in all species. At 8°C, the two laminarians were unable to resume growth upon re-illumination. Alaria esculenta showed new blade production by the end of the dark period, but only at 3°C. In all species, the photosynthetic ability was sustained, not suspended, during the whole dark period. P. rubens exhibited lower photosynthetic potential at 8°C than at 3°C during the darkness period, but it was able to recover its O2 evolving potential upon re-illumination, as P. gunneri and S. latissima did, but the latter only at 3°C. The reactivation of photosynthesis seemed to involve photosystem II over photosystem I, as 7 d of photoperiod after the prolonged darkness was not enough to fully recover the PAM-related photosynthetic parameters. Only small changes were recorded in the internal chemical composition (total C, total N, carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids), but species-specific differences were observed. Unlike subarctic areas with an operating photoperiod along the year, a warmer polar night might pose a limit to the ability of multi-year seaweeds to occupy the new ice-free illuminated areas of the Arctic coasts, so that newcomers will potentially be restricted to the spring-summer season.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 864
Opinder Singh Sandhu ◽  
Mangi L. Jat ◽  
Rajeev Kumar Gupta ◽  
Harmeet Singh Thind ◽  
Harminder Singh Sidhu ◽  

Decomposition influences carbon and nutrient cycling from crop residues. The nylon-mesh-bag technique was implied to study the decomposition and N-release dynamics from different crop residues under field conditions. The four types of residues were: maize (lower than 50% below the cob), wheat (lower than 25% of wheat stubbles), a whole mung bean residue, and a mixture of wheat + mung bean residue (1:1 ratio) put on the soil surface and in below the sub-surface. Decomposition and N release from both at-surface- and below-surface-placed residues were accurately described by a single-pool first-order exponential decay function as a function of thermal time (based on the accumulative daily mean temperature). The simple first-order exponential model met the criteria of goodness of fit. Throughout the decomposition cycle (one thermal year), the rate of decomposition as measured by a decrease in residue mass and the release of total N were statistically higher from the sub-surface compared to the surface-placed residue, irrespective of the residue type. At the end of the 150-day decomposition cycle, the release of total N was highest in mung bean (32.0 kg N ha−1), followed by maize (31.5 kg N ha−1) > wheat + mung bean (16.1 kg N ha−1), and the minimum (6.54 kg N ha−1) in wheat residue. Crop residues with a wider C/N ratio such as maize and wheat, when applied on the soil surface in conservation agriculture, caused the decomposition to occur at slower rates, thereby providing long-term beneficial effects on the soil thermal regime, soil moisture conservation, and C sequestration in North-West India.

Life ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 102
Dan Zhao ◽  
Yao Wang ◽  
Ling Wen ◽  
Hongyun Qu ◽  
Zuobiao Zhang ◽  

It is well known that crop monoculture can induce negative effects on soil ecosystems and crop productivity. However, little is known about how vegetable monoculture affects the soil nematode community structure and its relationship with vegetable yields. In this study, the composition, abundance, metabolic footprint, and ecological indices of soil nematodes are investigated in monocultures of pumpkin and melon. The relationships between nematode community structure and yields of pumpkin and melon were analyzed by linear regression. Both monoculture soils of pumpkin and melon suppressed the relative abundance of bacterivores but increased the relative abundance of plant parasites. Pumpkin monoculture soils decreased soil nematode diversity but increased the maturity index of plant parasites. Monoculture soils of pumpkin and melon decreased the metabolic footprint of lower- and higher-level trophic groups of the soil food web, respectively. Pumpkin and melon monoculture soils increased the food web indices channel index (CI) but decreased the enrichment index (EI) and the structure index (SI). The monoculture soils of pumpkin and melon led to a more fungal-dominated decomposition pathway and degraded soil food web conditions. The abundance of bacterivores and food web indices EI and SI were positively correlated with soil nutrients and pH, while the abundance of plant parasites and CI were negatively correlated with soil nutrients and pH. Paratylenchus was negatively correlated with pumpkin and melon yields and could be the potential plant parasites threatening pumpkin and melon productions. Redundancy analysis showed that monocultures of pumpkin and melon altered the soil nematode community via soil properties; total N, total P, alkeline-N, and pH were the main driving factors.

Water ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 217
Xiaomei Su ◽  
Alan D. Steinman ◽  
Yunlin Zhang ◽  
Hong Ling ◽  
Dan Wu

Sediment nutrients can be released to the surface water when hydraulic disturbance becomes strong in shallow lakes, which contributes to nutrient enrichment and subsequent lake eutrophication in the water column. To explore the seasonal variations and spatial distributions exhibited by nutrients in the water column, surface sediment, and pore water of Lake Yangcheng and its major tributaries, we determined the concentrations of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) throughout the lake in different seasons of 2018. Total N (TN) and total P (TP) concentrations in the connected rivers were much greater than those in the lake, indicating that external loading greatly contributed to the nutrient enrichment. TN concentration in the water column was highest in the winter, whereas TP peaked in the summer. A similar temporal pattern was observed for TN and TP in the sediment with maxima in the winter and minima in the summer; however, nutrients in the pore water were highest in the summer, in contrast to the temporal variation in the sediment. Additionally, high TN values in the water column and high TP in the three compartments were distributed primarily in the west part of the lake, while high TN concentrations in the sediment and pore water were observed mainly in the east portion of the lake. According to the enrichment factor index (an indicator evaluating the nutrient enrichment by comparing the detected contents and standard values), nutrients in the lake sediment were severely enriched with TN and TP averaging 2195.8 mg/kg and 543.0 mg/kg, respectively. The vertical distribution of TN and TP generally exhibited similar decreasing patterns with an increase in sediment depth, suggesting mineralization of TN and TP by microbes and benthic organisms. More attention and research are needed to understand the seasonality of nutrient exchange across the sediment–water interface, especially in eutrophic lakes.

Maarten H Jacobs ◽  
Sara Dubois ◽  
Tetsuro Hosaka ◽  
Vukan Ladanović ◽  
Huda Farhana Mohamad Muslim ◽  

AbstractUnderstanding differences in the way people think about wildlife across countries is important as many conservation challenges transcend jurisdictions. We explored differences in wildlife value orientations in seven countries: Australia, Canada, Germany, Japan, Malaysia, the Netherlands and Serbia. Standard scales assessed domination (prioritizing human well-being) and mutualism (striving for egalitarian relationships with wildlife). We used student samples (total n = 2176) for cross-cultural comparisons. Reliabilities of the wildlife value orientations scales were adequate in all countries. Relationships between demographics and wildlife value orientations were different across countries. Men were generally more oriented towards domination and less towards mutualism than women, except in Serbia, where it was the other way around. Estimated at the level of the individual (using ANOVA), wildlife value orientations varied across countries, with nationality explaining a larger portion of the variation in mutualism (21%) than domination (6%). Estimated at the level of countries (using multilevel modelling), effect sizes were comparable. Thought about wildlife has previously only been examined within single countries. This paper makes a new contribution to the conservation literature suggesting that wildlife value orientations vary by country, and are associated with demographic factors. For conservation practices, understanding national differences in the way people think about wildlife is crucial to understanding sources of conflict among practitioners. Such knowledge is also important to gain public support for conservation.

Slamet Santosa ◽  
Eddy Soekendarsi ◽  
Dody Priosambodo ◽  
Abdul Hayat Kasim

Growing media that contain organic materials can provide nutrients and water for plants. This study analyzed the availability and effects of nutrients and water, N and P resorption, and growth of teak seedlings under drought stress. The growing medium was made from ultisol soil (M1), ultisol soil with husk charcoal (M2), ultisol soil with chicken manure (M3), and ultisol soil with compost (M4), then planted with teak seeds. Maintenance was conducted by field capacity watering for 30 days. Teak seedlings were treated with drought stress for 90 days. Based on the analysis, growing media total N ranged from 0.19 to 0.28%, total P ranged from 0.10 to 0.17%, and water ranged from 11.40 to 16.20%. Teak seedling leaves contain N nutrient ranging from 0.34 to 0.95 % and P nutrient ranging from 0.04 to 0.16 %. The N resorption ability of teak seedlings ranged from 26 to 31%, and P resorption was around 20 to 25 %. The height growth of teak seedlings ranged from 80 to 115cm, the stem diameter from 1.4 to 1.8cm, the leaf area from 630 to 650cm2, and the thickness of the leaves from 545 to 462µm. Growing media made from ultisol soil and chicken manure (M3) produced the best water content, N and P resorption, and the growth of teak seedlings after 3 days of drought stress.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Yushi Zhang ◽  
Yubin Wang ◽  
Churong Liu ◽  
Delian Ye ◽  
Danyang Ren ◽  

Increasing use of plant density or/and nitrogen (N) application has been introduced to maize production in the past few decades. However, excessive planting density or/and use of fertilizer may cause reduced N use efficiency (NUE) and increased lodging risks. Ethephon application improves maize lodging resistance and has been an essential measure in maize intensive production systems associated with high plant density and N input in China. Limited information is available about the effect of ethephon on maize N use and the response to plant density under different N rates in the field. A three-year field study was conducted with two ethephon applications (0 and 90 g ha−1), four N application rates (0, 75, 150, and 225 kg N ha−1), and two plant densities (6.75 plants m−2 and 7.5 plants m−2) to evaluate the effects of ethephon on maize NUE indices (N agronomic efficiency, NAE; N recovery efficiency, NRE; N uptake efficiency, NUpE; N utilization efficiency, NUtE; partial factor productivity of N, PFPN), biomass, N concentration, grain yield and N uptake, and translocation properties. The results suggest that the application of ethephon decreased the grain yield by 1.83–5.74% due to the decrease of grain numbers and grain weight during the three experimental seasons. Meanwhile, lower biomass, NO3- and NH4+ fluxes in xylem bleeding sap, and total N uptake were observed under ethephon treatments. These resulted in lower NAE and NUpE under the ethephon treatment at a corresponding N application rate and plant density. The ethephon treatment had no significant effects on the N concentration in grains, and it decreased the N concentration in stover at the harvesting stage, while increasing the plant N concentration at the silking stage. Consequently, post-silking N remobilization was significantly increased by 14.10–32.64% under the ethephon treatment during the experimental periods. Meanwhile, NUtE significantly increased by ethephon.

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