The deposition of a drug to its required destination is crucial for effective lung treatment. It is important to design a suitable formulation that delivers the active ingredient to the desired site and resists the natural cleansing mechanisms of the airways. Large porous particles used as active substance carriers appear to be the most effective option for lung drug delivery. The present article provides a basic overview of the mechanisms of deposition of dry inhalable powders and methods of their preparation and evaluation. Spray drying together with micronization and crystallization techniques are among the most used methods of preparation of the discussed particles. Besides, these techniques can be combined with other production processes (encapsulation, emulsification, etc.). The evaluation of the properties of particles suitable for pulmonary application is based on specific requirements for their density, porosity, shape, aerodynamic parameters, and deposition in the lungs, which can now be simulated on an accurate model of artificial lungs.
The outbreak of unconventional emergencies leads to a surge in demand for emergency supplies. How to effectively arrange emergency production processes and improve production efficiency is significant. The emergency manufacturing systems are typically complex systems, which are difficult to be analyzed by using physical experiments. Based on the theory of Random Service System (RSS) and Parallel Emergency Management System (PeMS), a parallel simulation and optimization framework of production processes for surging demand of emergency supplies is constructed. Under this novel framework, an artificial system model paralleling with the real scenarios is established and optimized by the parallel implementation processes. Furthermore, a concrete example of mask shortage, which occurred at Huoshenshan Hospital in the COVID-19 pandemic, verifies the feasibility of this method.
Digital Twins (DTs) are a core enabler of Industry 4.0 in manufacturing. Cognitive Digital Twins (CDTs), as an evolution, utilize services and tools towards enabling human-like cognitive capabilities in DTs. This paper proposes a conceptual framework for implementing CDTs to support resilience in production, i.e., to enable manufacturing systems to identify and handle anomalies and disruptive events in production processes and to support decisions to alleviate their consequences. Through analyzing five real-life production cases in different industries, similarities and differences in their corresponding needs are identified. Moreover, a connection between resilience and cognition is established. Further, a conceptual architecture is proposed that maps the tools materializing cognition within the DT core together with a cognitive process that enables resilience in production by utilizing CDTs.
As cidades têm grande importância econômica, cultural e política na vida das pessoas que as habitam, ou que, de algum modo dependem delas. Essa temática tem sido estudada e apresentada de diversas formas por pesquisadores de várias áreas do conhecimento, configurando-se como uma discussão bem expressiva na Geografia. São encontrados no meio acadêmico brasileiro trabalhos que visam um ensino de cidade com foco para munícipios específicos, o que tem aproximado os conceitos inerentes à temática à realidade dos alunos, possibilitando melhor compreensão e aprendizagem. Além disso, é um assunto a partir do qual os professores podem trabalhar diversos temas e conceitos geográficos. A Geografia, por meio do ensino de cidade, proporciona aos alunos riquíssimas discussões sobre o viver urbano, os processos de (re)produção, os agentes envolvidos nesse processo, as lutas e os conflitos expressos nesses espaços. Assim, o objetivo desse trabalho é apontar as contribuições do ensino cidade para a formação cidadã, expor encaminhamentos de assuntos que podem ser estudados nesse conteúdo e apresentar algumas produções referentes ao ensino de cidade e a relação com a Geografia, publicados no âmbito das pós-graduações e em alguns periódicos. Como resultados temos uma pesquisa bibliográfica sobre o tema em questão, além de encaminhamentos que contribuem para o ensino de cidade.
Geografia, Ensino de Cidade, Cidadania.
THE CONTRIBUTIONS OF GEOGRAPHY TO CITY TEACHING AND CITIZEN EDUCATION
Cities have great economic, cultural and political importance in the lives of the people who inhabit them, or who in some way depend on them. This theme has been studied and presented in different ways by researchers from various areas of knowledge, configuring itself as a very expressive discussion in Geography. There are works in the Brazilian academic environment that aim at teaching the city with a focus on specific municipalities, which has brought the concepts inherent to the theme closer to the students' reality, enabling better understanding and learning. In addition, it is a subject from which teachers can work on various geographic themes and concepts. Geography, through city teaching, provides students with very rich discussions about urban living, the (re) production processes, the agents involved in this process, the struggles and conflicts expressed in these spaces. Thus, the objective of this work is to point out the contributions of city education to citizen education, expose subjects that can be studied in this content and present some productions related to city education and the relationship with Geography, published in the scope of graduations and in some journals. As a result, we have a bibliographic research on the subject in question, in addition to referrals that contribute to the teaching of the city.
Geography, City teaching, Citizenship.
The study aimed to develop an algorithm for computer-aided design (CAD) of working operations. A processing route for machining components was developed based on the criteria of production manufacturability, industrial data and a digital model of the product. The process of machining a workpiece was analysed using a method of theoretical separation. The machining process of a frame workpiece was used as a model. The identified formal parameters formed a basis for developing a CAD algorithm and a model of manufacturing route associated with the mechanical processing of a work-piece applying a condition-action rule, as well as mathematical logic. The research afforded a scheme for selecting process operations, given the manufacturability parameters of a product design. The concept of CAD algorithm was developed to design a production process of engineering products with given manufacturability parameters, including industrial data. The principle of forming a route and selecting a machining process was proposed. Several criteria of production manufacturability (labour intensity, consumption of materials, production costs) were selected to evaluate mechanical processing. A CAD algorithm for designing technological operations considering the parameters of manufacturability was developed. The algorithm was tested by manufacturing a frame workpiece. The developed algorithm can be used for reducing labour costs and development time, at the same time as improving the quality of production processes. The formalisation of process design is a crucial stage in digitalisation and automation of all production processes.
AbstractThe use of birch tar can be traced back to the European Middle Palaeolithic and is relevant for our understanding of the technical skills and cognitive abilities of Neanderthals. Due to the lack of archaeological evidence, it remains unknown what techniques were used for birch tar making. Efficiency was recently used as a proxy to determine the method most likely used in the Middle Palaeolithic. Todtenhaupt et al. have proposed a technique employing a groove-like structure that is comparable with the recently presented condensation method. The groove method resulted in higher tar yields compared to other experimental aceramic production processes. However, the implications for Palaeolithic tar making remain unclear because some of the materials used in the experiment were not available then (polished granite slabs). To approach this problem, we replicated the groove with river cobbles and, in a second experiment with flint fragments, to evaluate whether similar results can be obtained. We were successful in producing birch tar in multiple runs with the cobble- and flint-grooves, which, in addition, proved to be more efficient than the condensation method in terms of tar yield per bark input. Our experimental study provides an additional possibility to make prehistoric birch tar.
Thirty-nine Champagnes from six different brands originating from the AOC Champagne area were analyzed for major and trace element concentrations in the context of their production processes and in relation to their geographical origins. Inorganic analyses were performed on the must (i.e., grape juice) originating from different AOC areas and the final Champagne. The observed elemental concentrations displayed a very narrow range of variability. Typical concentrations observed in Champagne are expressed in mg/L for elements such as K, Ca, Mg, Na, B, Fe, A, and Mn. They are expressed in µg/L for trace elements such as Sr, Rb, Ba, Cu, Ni, Pb Cr and Li in decreasing order of concentrations. This overall homogeneity was observed for Sr and Rb in particular, which showed a very narrow range of concentrations (150 < Rb < 300 µg/L and 150 < Sr < 350 µg/L) in Champagne. The musts contained similar levels of concentration but showed slightly higher variability since they are directly influenced by the bedrock, which is quite homogenous in the AOC area being studied. Besides the homogeneity of the bedrock, the overall stability of the concentrations recorded in the samples can also be directly linked to the successive blending steps, both at the must level and prior to the final bottling. A detailed analysis of the main additives, sugar, yeast and bentonite, during the Champagne production process, did not show a major impact on the elemental signature of Champagne.