pollution indices
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2024 ◽  
Vol 84 ◽  
A. Baaloudj ◽  
P. R. De los Ríos-Escalante ◽  
C. Esse

Abstract The Seybouse is the second largest river basin in Algeria, hosting an important biodiversity and providing various ecosystem services. This watershed is highly influenced by agricultural and industrial activities, which threaten its biodiversity and ecosystem integrity. The use of benthic macroinvertebrates as biological indicators has a long tradition in developed countries and integrated into all assessments of the ecological quality of river systems. However, the macroinvertebrates of many North African regions are still not well studied, including those of the Seybouse river. The aim of this study is to assess the inventory and ecological role of benthic macroinvertebrates in inland waters of the Seybouse River and determine the impact of pollution on their spatial distributions. We sampled the benthic macrofauna of Wadi Seybouse and its affluents using regular surveys in three sites, of which one was in the upper Seybouse Bouhamdane in Medjez Amar and two in the middle Seybouse. Between December 2019 and May 2020, 10 physico-chemical parameters (pH, EC, OD, water speed, NO3, Salinity, NO2, MES, turbidity, depth) were measured in order to establish a health state diagnosis of these aquatic ecosystems. The complementary biological approach by the analysis of populations of macroinvertebrates identified 7482 individuals and 40 taxa divided into five classes: Crustaceans which were the most dominant, insects with the main orders (Ephemeroptera, Diptera, Trichoptera, Heteroptera and Odonata), Molluscs, Nematodes and Annelids. The physico-chemical analyzes and the application of the organic pollution indices indicated a strong to excessive pollution for all sites, especially in Seybouse upstream

2022 ◽  
Vol 194 (2) ◽  
D’Souza Nishitha ◽  
Vadakkeveedu Narayan Amrish ◽  
Kumar Arun ◽  
Anish Kumar Warrier ◽  
Harikripa Narayana Udayashankar ◽  

AbstractThe present study aims to assess the extent of trace metal pollution in the sediments of Sita-Swarna estuary, west coast of India, and investigate their possible ecological risk on the aquatic environment. The sediment cores were analyzed for sand, silt, clay, organic carbon, and trace metals (Al, Fe, Mn, As, Cd, Co, Zn, Pb, Ni, Cr, and Cu) at 2-cm intervals. The study revealed that sediments have deposited in relatively violent to very violent hydrodynamic energy conditions. Factor analysis indicated that the metal distribution is mainly controlled by Fe–Mn oxyhydroxides and organic carbon. Further, the geochemical approach, pollution indices, and statistical evaluation revealed moderate pollution in the catchment. From an ecotoxicological perspective, the estimated risk index (RI) value was found to less than 150, indicating low risk for aquatic life. Thus, this baseline study would help to adopt strategies in pollution control and protect the fragile marine environment.

2022 ◽  
Vol 16 (1) ◽  
pp. 46
Mohd Zahari Abdullah ◽  
Nur Najiha Abdul Hadi

The study on the impact of palm oil mill processing activities on the environment of Bukit Mendi Palm Oil Mill was conducted by determining the distribution of six heavy metal concentrations Cadmium (Cd), Copper (Cu), Manganese (Mn), Lead (Pb), Iron (Fe) and Zinc (Zn) and the selected pollution indices. This study provided some information on the accumulation of heavy metals in the selected area and served to identify the potential sources contributing to these heavy metals. Soil samples were collected from eight sampling sites around the palm oil mill and analysed for the selected metals using ICP-OES. Three types of pollution indices were used to observe the pollution level of the area, namely Enrichment Factor (EF), potential ecological risk index (PERI), and Contamination Factor (CF) of heavy metal content. The average total concentration of the selected metals was found to increase in the order of Fe, Mn, Zn, Cd, Pb, and Cu. The metal Fe showed the highest metal content, followed by Mn at 1573.00 mg/kg and 154.00 mg/kg, respectively. The values of EF showed that the metal was unevenly distributed throughout the sampling areas, where heavy metal content ranged from minimal to extremely high enrichment. The potential ecological risk ranging from low to severe was observed in this study. The CF values revealed that the area was heavily contaminated with Cd and only slightly contaminated with Pb. The pollution indices determined in this study suggested that the study area was moderately contaminated with metals, and the metal Cd was found to be the only metal potentially posing an ecological risk to the area.Keywords: ICP-OES, palm oil mill, heavy metals, soil pollution, pollution indices

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (4) ◽  
pp. 395-407
N. I. Zlobin

Waste produced during the extraction of minerals can cause various environmental problems. One of which is polluting underground and surface waters. The purpose of the article is to assess the level of pollution of water bodies of the Denezhkin Kamen reserve by the Shemur ore field. To assess the level of pollution, individual and complex pollution indices, statistical parameters and the ʺQuartileʺ method for calculating emissions are used. An analysis of the geological structure of the territory and physical and geographical conditions of the area was carried out; the level of pollution was assessed; the main causes of pollution were determined; the main pollutants were identified. The waters flowing through the reserve are not polluted they are polluted near the reserve borders. Pollutants are carried downstream over long distances and get into the intakes of local settlements. In the Bannaya River basin, the pollution area is about 80 km; in the Olkhovka River basin, the pollution area is about 60 km. There is a dependence in the change in the concentration of pollutants on seasonality and weather conditions. The main pollutants are those that are contained in large quantities in the overburden rocks of the deposit. Additional studies are required using a sampling program, which was not available during the current studies.

Netsanet Muluneh Gebreyohannes ◽  
Mwemezi J. Rwiza ◽  
Wilson Leonidas Mahene ◽  
Revocatus L. Machunda

Abstract The quality of water and sediments from a marginally-studied river was investigated with respect to As, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn including their fractionation behavior and environmental risk. Samples were collected along the Kou River that flows across two districts in the Manyara region of Tanzania. The leaching behavior of Fe was studied using sequential extraction fractionation and kinetics approach. The Kou water failed to meet the irrigation, aquatic, and biological life standards with respect to one of more trace metallic elements (TMEs). Fe concentration in the river water ranged from 4.1 to 5.38 mg/L exceeding all the three standards. Six pollution indices were applied to assess the contamination and ecological risks of the nine trace metallic elements in the sediments. Overall, the metals were found to moderately contaminate the sediments. Cr, Fe, and Mn fell under the ‘severely polluted’ sediment quality class. Fe was the only metal that was found to significantly pollute both the river water and sediments. The Fe fractions in the sediments were in the order of residuals>Fe-Mn bound>organic bound>carbonate bound>water soluble>ion exchangeable. 7.8% of the total Fe content was bioavailable with a low potential to leach from the sediments. Under natural conditions, the sharpest release of the non-residual mobile fractions of Fe were identified to occur within the first 24 hours with the maximum Fe leached being 0.14% on the 12th day. None of the metals in the sediments were found with a potential to pose ecological risk.

A. Benarabi ◽  
M. S. Nili ◽  
A. Douadi

Soil is contaminated with various potentially harmful metals (PTMs). Therefore, the adequate protection of soil from contamination is imperative, as the soil is regarded as the primary cradle for living and environmental balance. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to assess the contamination level by PTMs in Touggourt city, where soil samples have been collected randomly from 18 sites. These sites included manufacturing companies and institutions belonging to the industrial region of Touggourt city. The concentrations of six PTMs - zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and manganese (Mn) were assessed using the atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) instrument as well as the application of the modern pollution indices such as CF (Contamination Factor), PLI (Pollution Load Index) and EF (Enrichment Factor). The highest values of contamination factor (CF) for Zn, Fe, Co, Cu, and Pb were 0.605, 1.605, 0.277, 0.05, 0.438, and 0.01, respectively, and the highest value of pollution load index (PLI) was 0.139, while the results of enrichment factor (EF) for the Zn, Mn, Co, Cu and Pb metals were 2.608, 0.060, 0.740, 0.122, and 2.358, respectively. According to these pollution indices, the results of this study have indicated that human effects or industrial wastes and traffic, in particular, were the sources of heavy metal contaminating the studied region.

Sajjad Abbasi ◽  
Sara Sheikh Fakhradini ◽  
Neamatollah Jaafarzadeh ◽  
Pooria Ebrahimi ◽  
Shirin Yavar Ashayeri

AbstractThe heavy metal(loid)s concentrations in water and sediments were analyzed in the Hashilan wetland to assess the spatial distribution, pollution status, fate, partitioning, and ecological risk and also to identify the heavy metal(loid)s sources in sediments using PMF (Positive Matrix Factorization) and APCs-MLR (absolute principal component score-multiple linear regression) receptor models. According to the pollution indices, (Ni, Cu, Cr, Mo), and (Zn, Cr, and Cu) are considered the most important pollutants in sediments and water, respectively. Ni, Cr, and Cu are the main contributors to ecological risks in sediments of some stations. The potential ecological risk assessment proposed low ecological risk in water of the study area. Higher distribution coefficient (Kp) values of Ni, Cr, Mn, Cu, Co, Pb, As, and Zn indicated the majority of these heavy metals present in the sediments; whereas, the majority of Cd concentration occurs in water. PMF and APCs-MLR results indicated the natural sources were the main factors affecting the concentrations of Ni, Cr, Zn, Al, Co, Fe, Pb, As, Cd and somewhat Cu. Mixed natural and agricultural activities are the main sources of Mo, and somewhat Cu. According to the results, there is low pollution of TPH (total petroleum hydrocarbons) in the sediment samples. Also, phosphate (PO42−) and nitrate (NO3−) concentrations were below the recommended permissible limits at all sampling sites except the S8 station for NO3−.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (12) ◽  
pp. 1443
Ali H. Saleh ◽  
Mohamed Gad ◽  
Moataz M. Khalifa ◽  
Salah Elsayed ◽  
Farahat S. Moghanm ◽  

This research intends to offer a scientific foundation for environmental monitoring and early warning which will aid in the environmental protection management of Qaroun Lake. Qaroun Lake is increasingly influenced by untreated wastewater discharge from many anthropogenic activities, making it vulnerable to pollution. For that, six environmental pollution indices, namely contamination factor (Cf), enrichment factor (EF), geo-accumulation index (Igeo), degree of contamination (Dc), pollution load index (PLI), and potential ecological risk index (RI), were utilized to assess the bottom sediment and to determine the different geo-environmental variables affecting the lake system. Cluster analysis (CA), and principal component analysis (PCA) were used to explore the potential pollution sources of heavy metal. Moreover, the efficiency of partial least-square regression (PLSR) and multiple linear regression (MLR) were tested to assess the Dc, PLI, and RI depending on the selected elements. The sediment samples were carefully collected from 16 locations of Qaroun Lake in two investigated years in 2018 and 2019. Total concentrations of Al, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ga, Hf, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, P, Pb, Sb, Se, Zn, and Zr were quantified using inductively coupled plasma mass spectra (ICP-MS). According to the Cf, EF, and Igeo results, As, Cd, Ga, Hf, P, Sb, Se, and Zr demonstrated significant enrichment in sediment and were derived from anthropogenic sources. According to Dc results, all collected samples were categorized under a very high degree of contamination. Further, the results of RI showed that the lake is at very high ecological risk. Meanwhile, the PLI data indicated 59% of lake was polluted and 41% had PLI < 1. The PLSR and MLR models based on studied elements presented the highest efficiency as alternative approaches to assess the Dc, PLI, and RI of sediments. For examples, the validation (Val.) models presented the best performance of these indices, with R2val = 0.948–0.989 and with model accuracy ACCv = 0.984–0.999 for PLSR, and with R2val = 0.760–0.979 and with ACCv = 0.867–0.984 for MLR. Both models for Dc, PLI, and RI showed that there was no clear overfitting or underfitting between measuring, calibrating, and validating datasets. Finally, the combinations of Cf, EF, Igeo, PLI, Dc, RI, CA, PCA, PLSR, and MLR approaches represent valuable and applicable methods for assessing the risk of potentially harmful elemental contamination in the sediment of Qaroun Lake.

Energies ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (24) ◽  
pp. 8397
Grzegorz Majewski ◽  
Bartosz Szeląg ◽  
Anita Białek ◽  
Michał Stachura ◽  
Barbara Wodecka ◽  

An innovative method was proposed to facilitate the analyses of meteorological conditions and selected air pollution indices’ influence on visibility, air quality index and mortality. The constructed calculation algorithm is dedicated to simulating the visibility in a single episode, first of all. It was derived after applying logistic regression methodology. It should be stressed that eight visibility thresholds (Vis) were adopted in order to build proper classification models with a number of relevant advantages. At first, there exists the possibility to analyze the impact of independent variables on visibility with the consideration of its’ real variability. Secondly, through the application of the Monte Carlo method and the assumed classification algorithms, it was made possible to model the number of days during a precipitation and no-precipitation periods in a yearly cycle, on which the visibility ranged practically: Vis < 8; Vis = 8–12 km, Vis = 12–16 km, Vis = 16–20 km, Vis = 20–24 km, Vis = 24–28 km, Vis = 28–32 km, Vis > 32 km. The derived algorithm proved a particular role of precipitation and no-precipitation periods in shaping the air visibility phenomena. Higher visibility values and a lower number of days with increased visibility were found for the precipitation period contrary to no-precipitation one. The air quality index was lower for precipitation days, and moreover, strong, non-linear relationships were found between mortality and visibility, considering precipitation and seasonality effects.

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