ABSTRACT Organomineral fertilizer has great potential to replace synthetic fertilizers. The goal of this study was to determine an optimal substitution rate of organomineral fertilizer for mineral fertilizer to increase potato yield and quality. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with four replicates and six treatments, namely four substitution rates of organomineral fertilizer application (25, 50, 75, and 100% of mineral fertilizer demand), one rate of mineral fertilizer application (100% of mineral fertilizer demand), and the control (no fertilizer application). The organomineral application rates were tested as an alternative to substitute 25 to 100% of mineral fertilizer. The potato yield (total and in-class) and quality and plant and soil nutrient contents were monitored. The pH and total soluble solid contents had positive correlations with yield. Potatoes accumulated higher contents of K > N > P in the leaves, stems, and tubers. The organomineral fertilizer application rate of 3.7 t ha-1 (equivalent to 100% of mineral fertilizer demand) was the optimal rate to increase potato yield and quality. Organomineral fertilizer is a viable alternative to increase potato quality and yield and to increase plant and soil nutrient contents.
Abstract Transplanting time and genotype contribute to improving crop yield and quality of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.). A field experiment was conducted to investigate the impact of foliar applied of triacontanol (TRIA) and eggplant genotypes 25919, Nirala, 28389 and Pak-10927,transplanted on 1 March,15 March, and 1 April on exposure to high air temperature conditions. The experiment was performed according to Randomized Complete Block Design and the data was analyzed by using Tuckey,s test . The TRIA was applied at 10µM at flowering stage; distilled water was used as the control. Rate of photosynthesis and transpiration, stomatal conductance, water use efficiency, and effects on antioxidative enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase) were evaluated. The 10µM TRIA increased photosynthesis rate and water use efficiency and yield was improved in all genotypes transplanted at the different dates. Foliar application of 10µM TRIA increased antioxidative enzyme activities (SOD, POD & CAT) and improved physiological as well as biochemical attributes of eggplant genotypes exposed to high heat conditions. Highest activity of dismutase enzyme 5.41mg/1g FW was recorded in Nirala genotype in second transplantation. Whereas, lowest was noted in PAK-10927 (2.30mg/g FW). Maximum fruit yield was found in accession 25919 (1.725kg per plant) at 1st transplantation with Triacontanol, whereas accession PAK-10927 gave the lowest yield (0.285 kg per plant) at control treatment on 3rd transplantation. Genotype, transplanting date and application of TRIA improved growth, yield and quality attributes under of heat stress in eggplant.
Asparagus is a potential greenhouse crop, and its production is considerably affected by temperature and light, especially in the summer season. This study investigated the effects of the application of near-infrared (NIR)-reflective diffusion coating on a simple plastic greenhouse on microclimatic conditions, plant response, spear yield, and quality of the asparagus plant in central Taiwan. The results showed that NIR-reflective diffusion coating reduced the mean air temperature inside the greenhouse by 0.3 to 0.9 °C and leaf temperature by 2.3, 2.4, and 2.4 °C at a canopy height of 50, 100, and 50 cm, respectively. Although the accumulated daily light integral (DLI) transmitted in the coated greenhouse exhibited an 18.9% reduction compared with a 16.8% reduction in the noncoated greenhouse, a more uniform spatial light distribution was noted. Therefore, photosynthesis improved in the middle and bottom canopy, and plants could maintain a higher transpiration rate, thus resulting in atmospheric cooling. The average spear yield increased by 31.4% in summer and by 10.1% during the following harvest with a lower crude fiber (CF) content and higher Ca as well as Mg contents. In addition, the number of newly emerged shoots increased by 48.8% after the removal of the mother stalk under coating. NIR-reflective diffusion coating can be used as an energy-saving method for enhancing cooling and improving light use efficiency, thus increasing asparagus production in a greenhouse in summer.
This study aimed to examine the regularities of the regenerationprocesses of haploid plants, the dependence of in vitro microspore morphogenesis in anther culture on optimization factors, and their efficiency in F1 hybrids of T. aestivumof different ecological and geographicorigin. It was found that heterosis contributed to an increased yield of haploid chlorophyll-bearing regenerants from hybrids obtained from the crossing of parental forms with different responsiveness to androclinia. Results were obtained for the complex optimization of the androgenesis method for the in vitro anther culture of T. aestivum, in order to create diploidized haploid lines (DHL) regardless of the influence of the genotype. The agroecological properties for a complex of economically useful traits were also assessed. DHLs were created that combined high yield (5.1-6.8 t / ha) with lodging resistance (straw height – 60-80 cm) and consistently high grain quality; these were characterized by increased resistance to major leaf diseases in comparison with the standard variety in the conditions of the Central Economic Region of the Non-Black Earth Zone of the Russian Federation.
Keywords: spring soft wheat, androgenesis, embyroidogenesis, callusogenesis, diploidized haploids, in vitro, yield and quality
Ratooning is the cultivation practice of two harvests in one cropping season by producing a second crop from the original stubble, which could provide higher resource use efficiency and economic benefit compared with direct sown crops. Nitrogen (N) fertilizer and planting density (D) play a vital role in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) production; however, limited information is available on the effects on yield and quality of the sorghum-ratoon system. To address this question, field experiments were conducted with three N treatments (120 kg N ha–1, N1; 180 kg N ha–1, N2; and 255 kg N ha–1, N3) and three D treatments (82,500 plant ha–1, D1; 105,000 plant ha–1, D2; and 127,500 plant ha–1, D3). The yield of the main crop was significantly higher than that of the ratoon crop. Increasing N could increase the yield and yield attributes of both main and ratoon crops, and the effect on the ratoon crop was greater than the main crop. With increasing D, the grain yield of both main and ratoon crops increased, though 1,000-grain weight and grain weight per ear decreased. The sorghum grain of the ratoon crop contained higher starch, protein, and tannin contents but lower fat content, indicating a better quality for liquor production. The quality traits were significantly affected by N and D, but the differences between treatments were smaller than that between the main and ratoon crop. Our results indicated that increasing the yield of ratoon crops could obtain a high yield and quality of the sorghum-ratoon system. It was recommended that 120 kg N ha–1 with 127,500 plant ha–1 for the main crop and a small amount of N be top-dressed in three new buds left on stubble in each hill for the ratoon crop.
Small RNAs (sRNAs) regulate numerous plant processes directly related to yield, such as disease resistance and plant growth. To exploit this yield-regulating potential of sRNAs, the sRNA profile of one of the world’s most important staple crops – rice – was investigated throughout plant development using next-generation sequencing.
Root and leaves were investigated at both the vegetative and generative phase, and early-life sRNA expression was characterized in the embryo and endosperm. This led to the identification of 49,505 novel sRNAs and 5581 tRNA-derived sRNAs (tsRNAs). In all tissues, 24 nt small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) were highly expressed and associated with euchromatic, but not heterochromatic transposable elements. Twenty-one nt siRNAs deriving from genic regions in the endosperm were exceptionally highly expressed, mimicking previously reported expression levels of 24 nt siRNAs in younger endosperm samples. In rice embryos, sRNA content was highly diverse while tsRNAs were underrepresented, possibly due to snoRNA activity. Publicly available mRNA expression and DNA methylation profiles were used to identify putative siRNA targets in embryo and endosperm. These include multiple genes related to the plant hormones gibberellic acid and ethylene, and to seed phytoalexin and iron content.
This work introduces multiple sRNAs as potential regulators of rice yield and quality, identifying them as possible targets for the continuous search to optimize rice production.