grain quality
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2022 ◽  
Vol 371 ◽  
pp. 131205
Changquan Zhang ◽  
Weizhuo Hao ◽  
Yan Lu ◽  
Yong Yang ◽  
Zhuanzhuan Chen ◽  

Agronomy ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 172
Gideon Grafi ◽  
Jeevan R. Singiri

The seed is the fundamental unit of the dispersal of dry, dehiscent fruits, in which the fruit splits open at maturity to allow for seed dispersal. However, dry fruits may be indehiscent and therefore represent the dispersal unit (DU). Cereals possess a one-seeded fruit, whereby the seed coat and the fruit coat are fused together to generate the caryopsis. This caryopsis may be covered by floral bracts to generate two types of DUs, namely florets, whereby the caryopsis is enclosed by the lemma and the palea (e.g., Avenasterilis) or spikelet, whereby the floret(s) is further covered by the glumes (Triticum turgidum var. dicoccoides). Here, we highlight the dead coverings enclosing the caryopsis in cereals, namely the husks as an integral component of the dispersal unit that play multifaceted roles in grain biology. Thus, besides protection and dispersal means, the husks function as a rich maternal supply of proteins and metabolites for enhancing growth and development, combat potential pathogens as well as confer tolerance to abiotic stresses. These attributes might have broad implications for crop performance, plant population dynamics and diversity in ecological systems, and for conservation of genetic resources in seed banks.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 631
Kirsten Ann Pearsons ◽  
Emmanuel Chiwo Omondi ◽  
Brad J. Heins ◽  
Gladis Zinati ◽  
Andrew Smith ◽  

Reducing tillage has been widely promoted to reduce soil erosion, maintain soil health, and sustain long-term food production. The effects of reducing tillage on crop nutritional quality in organic and conventional systems, however, has not been widely explored. One possible driver of crop nutritional quality might be the changing soil nitrogen (N) availability associated with reduced tillage in various management systems. To test how reducing tillage affects crop nutritional quality under contrasting conventional and organic farming systems with varied N inputs, we measured nutritional quality (protein, fat, starch, ash, net energy, total digestible nutrients, and concentrations of Ca, K, Mg, P, and S) of maize, wheat, oats, and soybeans harvested from a long-term trial comprised of three farming systems under two tillage regimes: a conventional grain system (CNV); a low-input organic grain system (LEG); and an organic, manure-based grain + forage system (MNR) under conventional full-tillage (FT) and reduced-till (RT) management. Although maize and wheat yields were 10–13% lower under RT management, grain quality metrics including protein, fat, starch, energy, and mineral concentrations were not significantly affected by reducing tillage. Differences in nutrient quality were more marked between farming systems: protein levels in maize were highest in the MNR system (8.1%); protein levels in soybeans were highest in the LEG system (40.4%); levels of protein (12.9%), ash (2.0%), and sulfur (1430 ppm) in wheat were highest in the CNV system, and oat quality was largely consistent between the LEG and MNR systems. As grain quality did not significantly respond to reducing tillage, other management decisions that affect nutrient availability appear to have a greater effect on nutrient quality.

Rice Science ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 29 (1) ◽  
pp. 16-30
Amanda Müller ◽  
Marcela Trojahn Nunes ◽  
Vanessa Maldaner ◽  
Paulo Carteri Coradi ◽  
Rosana Santos de Moraes ◽  

2022 ◽  
pp. 113-134
Keerthi Chadalavada ◽  
Karthika Guna ◽  
B.D. Ranjitha Kumari ◽  
T. Senthil Kumar

2022 ◽  
pp. 131982
Atman Poonia ◽  
D.S. Phogat ◽  
Versha ◽  
Sushil Nagar ◽  
Paras Sharma ◽  

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