Security Context
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Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 567
Muhammad Husnain ◽  
Khizar Hayat ◽  
Enrico Cambiaso ◽  
Ubaid U. Fayyaz ◽  
Maurizio Mongelli ◽  

The advancement in the domain of IoT accelerated the development of new communication technologies such as the Message Queuing Telemetry Transport (MQTT) protocol. Although MQTT servers/brokers are considered the main component of all MQTT-based IoT applications, their openness makes them vulnerable to potential cyber-attacks such as DoS, DDoS, or buffer overflow. As a result of this, an efficient intrusion detection system for MQTT-based applications is still a missing piece of the IoT security context. Unfortunately, existing IDSs do not provide IoT communication protocol support such as MQTT or CoAP to validate crafted or malformed packets for protecting the protocol implementation vulnerabilities of IoT devices. In this paper, we have designed and developed an MQTT parsing engine that can be integrated with network-based IDS as an initial layer for extensive checking against IoT protocol vulnerabilities and improper usage through a rigorous validation of packet fields during the packet-parsing stage. In addition, we evaluate the performance of the proposed solution across different reported vulnerabilities. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed solution for detecting and preventing the exploitation of vulnerabilities on IoT protocols.

2021 ◽  
Vol 41 (3) ◽  
pp. 300-311
Joelle M. Abi-Rached

Abstract This article sketches a short history of the Covid-19 passport by examining its earlier iterations, including the “sanitary passport” (passeport sanitaire), an epidemiological tool officially introduced on the global stage by the French delegation during the 1893 International Sanitary Conference in Dresden. The sanitary passport shares with the Covid-19 passport two features. First, a similar aim, that of controlling the movement of potentially infected individuals across borders. Second, a similar condition of possibility, that of being the product of a pandemic crisis. The article identifies key characteristics as well as departures with the reinvention of the Covid-19 vaccine or immunity passport. The paper also situates the birth of the sanitary passport within a security context of increasing use of national passports as a means for the continuous surveillance of criminals and vagabonds as well as a scientific context marked by a key mutation: the birth of the immunized self.

Electronics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (22) ◽  
pp. 2865
Andrea Tick ◽  
Desireé J. Cranfield ◽  
Isabella M. Venter ◽  
Karen V. Renaud ◽  
Rénette J. Blignaut

In 2020, a global pandemic led to lockdowns, and subsequent social and business restrictions. These required overnight implementation of emergency measures to permit continued functioning of vital industries. Digital technologies and platforms made this switch feasible, but it also introduced several cyber related vulnerabilities, which students might not have known how to mitigate. For this study, the Global Cyber Security Index and the Cyber Risk literacy and education index were used to provide a cyber security context for each country. This research project—an international, cross-university, comparative, quantitative project—aimed to explore the risk attitudes and concerns, as well as protective behaviours adopted by, students at a South African, a Welsh and a Hungarian University, during the pandemic. This study’s findings align with the relative rankings of the Oliver Wyman Risk Literacy and Education Index for the countries in which the universities reside. This study revealed significant differences between the student behaviours of students within these universities. The most important differences were identified between students’ risk attitudes and concerns. It was also discovered that South African students reported having changed their protective online behaviours to the greatest extent, since the pandemic commenced. Recommendations are made suggesting that cyber security training and education, as well as improving the digital trust and confidence in digital platforms, are critical.

Josinta Tillett

While the Christchurch mosque attacks on 15 March 2019 were asserted to have changed New Zealand’s national security context, arguably the possibility of such an attack was foreseen, and, internationally, there was evidence of increasing risk of such attacks occurring. This paper explores the current state of international lone-actor research, and looks at how this can be applied in an endeavour to prevent future attacks in New Zealand. This paper combines an overview of the international lone-actor phenomenon, with New Zealand’s historical and contemporary terrorism context, and explores the extent that international research may have a bearing on current and future lone-actor terrorism risk here. It argues careful attention to identifiable indicators and protective factors, as well as local context, as essential in the contemplation of current and future attempts to pre-emptively identify and prevent potential lone-actor terrorism in New Zealand.

2021 ◽  
Vol 36 (36) ◽  
pp. 64-93
Mirosław Lipka

This article provides an overview of EU Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) missions’ crisis management achievements and challenges since 2003, in connection with the European External Action Service (EEAS), the Civilian Planning and Conduct Capability (CPCC) Directorate, and their respective roles. The analysis describes and evaluates the changes in the overall political and security context and the EU’s approach, suggesting some of the consequences in the launch and implementation of civilian CSDP Missions. The article also discusses the evolution of the EU’s integrated approach to external conflict and crises, and its cooperation with other security actors. The concluding remarks compare achievements and shortcomings of ongoing missions against their mandates and objectives, outlining some selected EU initiatives which aim at improving the EU’s performance in crisis management situations.

2021 ◽  
Stephan De Spiegeleire ◽  
Yar Batoh ◽  
Daria Goriacheva ◽  
Glib Voloskyi ◽  
Khrystyna Holynska ◽  

This paper provides the epistemic equivalent of an 'MRI' scan of the English and Russian literature on deterrence in an international security context. Using a variety of different recent datasets and -tools, the paper exposes a surprisingly high number of glaring weaknesses and holes. The paper’s first, more ‘technical’, section presents compelling evidence that the volume, velocity, collegiality and uptake of publicly available scientific insights into ‘security deterrence’ remain decidedly suboptimal – also compared to the other scientific disciplines that have examined human deterrence. The data on the scientific thoroughness of this field also paint a discomfortingly bleak picture, albeit less conclusively so. The paper’s second, more substantive section equally painfully highlights what it calls the field’s unbearable empirical lightness; conceptual confusion and cacophony (even within language domains); as well as multiple major (highly relevant) epistemic holes and other weaknesses. The paper concludes with some recommendations on how the epistemic community working on these issues as well as the academic and policy communities that fund much of this research can build on uniquely promising new developments in the access to (especially also textual) data to build and validate more granular and trustworthy datasets; in humans’ newfound ability to interact with machine algorithms to semantically parse texts to discover and validate ‘knowledge’ in unprecedented ways; but also – in a more mundane mode – to start incentivizing more organically collaborative ways of knowledge building.

2021 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 105-110
Gabriela Belova ◽  
Gergana Georgieva

Abstract From spring onwards 2020 has been irrevocably interwoven with words such as “pandemic”, “emergency”, “crisis”, “urgent measures”, etc. The usage of the pandemic language to describe the outbreak of COVID-19 derives from the etymologies of these words. However, it could also be rooted in political motives. There are instances of how specific terms could be mobilized to support policy aims. This is the main reason why more attention should be paid to the strength of the language used and more awareness of the usage of particular terms within a political and security context. It could be considered necessary to take extraordinary “urgent” measures to save lives as a result of a global “pandemic”, but at the same time, it is vital to be careful how exactly these terms are used to justify political principles, which were in operation even before the outbreak of COVID-19.

Moldoscopie ◽  
2021 ◽  
pp. 67-77
Ludmila Oleinic ◽  

The European Union is a stabilizing factor, important for the national security system that is why the Republic of Moldova is working to advance the European integration process. Accession to the European Union will strengthen the country’s security, with the Republic of Moldova becoming a beneficiary and a source of stability and security. In this regard a special place in the security context is also Moldova’s participation in global, regional and subregional efforts to promote international stability and security through cooperation within the UN, the OSCE, as well as NATO. The defense is a fundamental and distinct area of national security, which is in a relationship of interdependence with the processes of state development. Since the proclamation of independence, the Republic of Moldova has undergone a comprehensive process of strengthening the institutional capacities of the national defense system, a process that continues so far. Generalizing, this scientific research is intended to identify, strengthen and combine the efforts of institutions with their powers in the implementation of security and defense policies, as well as to effectively coordinate their actions.

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