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2022 ◽  
Vol 4 (4) ◽  
pp. 151-153
Onaisa Aalia Mushtaq ◽  
Javaid Ahmad Mir ◽  
Bushra Mushtaq

Neonatal Intensive Care is defined as, “care for medically unstable and critically ill newborns requiring constant nursing, complicated surgical procedures, continual respiratory support, or other intensive interventions.” A NICU is a unit that provides high quality skilled care to critically ill neonates by offering facilities for continuous clinical, biochemical and radio logical monitoring and use of life support systems with the aim of improving survival of these babies. Intermediate care includes care of ill infants requiring less constant nursing care, but does not exclude respiratory support. Care of ill infants requiring less constant nursing care, but does not exclude respiratory support. When an intensive care nursery is available, the intermediate nursery serves as a “step down unit” from the intensive care area.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
David Goettler ◽  
Patricia Niekler ◽  
Johannes G. Liese ◽  
Andrea Streng

Abstract Introduction Detailed and up-to-date data on the epidemiology and healthcare costs of Influenza are fundamental for public health decision-making. We analyzed inpatient data on Influenza-associated hospitalizations (IAH), selected complications and risk factors, and their related direct costs for Germany during ten consecutive years. Methods We conducted a retrospective cost-of-illness study on patients with laboratory-confirmed IAH (ICD-10-GM code J09/J10 as primary diagnosis) by ICD-10-GM-based remote data query using the Hospital Statistics database of the German Federal Statistical Office. Clinical data and associated direct costs of hospital treatment are presented stratified by demographic and clinical variables. Results Between January 2010 to December 2019, 156,097 persons were hospitalized due to laboratory-confirmed Influenza (J09/J10 primary diagnosis). The annual cumulative incidence was low in 2010, 2012 and 2014 (1.3 to 3.1 hospitalizations per 100,000 persons) and high in 2013 and 2015-2019 (12.6 to 60.3). Overall direct per patient hospitalization costs were mean (SD) 3521 EUR (± 8896) and median (IQR) 1805 EUR (1502; 2694), with the highest mean costs in 2010 (mean 8965 EUR ± 26,538) and the lowest costs in 2012 (mean 2588 EUR ± 6153). Mean costs were highest in 60-69 year olds, and in 50-59, 70-79 and 40-49 year olds; they were lowest in 10-19 year olds. Increased costs were associated with conditions such as diabetes (frequency 15.0%; 3.45-fold increase compared to those without diabetes), adiposity (3.3%; 2.09-fold increase) or immune disorders (5.6%; 1.88-fold increase) and with Influenza-associated complications such as Influenza pneumonia (24.3%; 1.95-fold), bacterial pneumonia (6.3%; 3.86-fold), ARDS (1.2%; 10.90-fold increase) or sepsis (2.3%; 8.30-fold). Estimated overall costs reported for the 10-year period were 549.6 Million euros (95% CI 542.7-556.4 million euros). Conclusion We found that the economic burden of IAH in Germany is substantial, even when considering solely laboratory-confirmed IAH reported as primary diagnosis. The highest costs were found in the elderly, patients with certain underlying risk factors and patients who required advanced life support treatment, and median and mean costs showed considerable variations between single years. Furthermore, there was a relevant burden of disease in middle-aged adults, who are not covered by the current vaccination recommendations in Germany.

ASAIO Journal ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol Publish Ahead of Print ◽  
Krista N. Grennan ◽  
Timothy M. Maul ◽  
Jennifer S. Nelson

Stirparo Giuseppe ◽  
Lorenzo Bellini ◽  
Nazzareno Fagoni ◽  
Salvatore Compatti ◽  
Marco Botteri ◽  

Abstract Background: during the COVID-19 pandemic a total lockdown was enforced all over Italy starting on March 9th. This resulted in the shrinking of economic activities. In addition, all formal occupational security-training courses were halted, among them the 81/08 law lectures and Basic Life Support-Defibrillation (BLS-D) laymen training courses. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of the pandemic on BLS-D laymen training courses in the Lombardy region. Methods: BLS-D training courses records for the Lombardy region were analysed. The analysis was conducted from 2016 to 2020 as part of the Hippo project. Results: between 2017 and 2019 BLS-D trained laymen kept increasing, moving from 53,500 trained individuals up to 74,700. In 2020 a stark reduction was observed with only 22,160 individuals trained. Formal courses were not halted completely during 2020. Still, in the months available for training, the number of individuals enrolled showed a sharp 50% reduction. Conclusions: laymen training courses for emergency management are a fundamental component of primary prevention practice. The 81/08 and 158/12 Italian laws have decreed this practice mandatory on the workplace. Following the enforcement of the lockdown and the subsequent interruption of emergency management courses, efforts will be necessary to re-establish and guarantee the high quality training of the pre-pandemic period.

Calvin Lukas Kienbacher ◽  
Jürgen Grafeneder ◽  
Katharina Tscherny ◽  
Mario Krammel ◽  
Verena Fuhrmann ◽  

Abstract Background The COVID-19 pandemic led to widespread use of personal protection equipment (PPE), including filtering face piece (FFP) masks, throughout the world. PPE. Previous studies indicate that PPE impairs neurocognitive performance in healthcare workers. Concerns for personnel safety have led to special recommendations regarding basic life support (BLS) in patients with a potential SARS-CoV-2 infection, including the use of PPE. Established instruments are available to assess attention and dexterity in BLS settings, respectively. We aimed to evaluate the influence of PPE with different types of FFP masks on these two neuropsychological components of EMS personnel during BLS. Methods This was a randomized controlled non-inferiority triple-crossover study. Teams of paramedics completed three 12-min long BLS scenarios on a manikin after having climbed three flights of stairs with equipment, each in three experimental conditions: (a) without pandemic PPE, (b) with PPE including a FFP2 mask with an expiration valve and (c) with PPE including an FFP2 mask without an expiration valve. The teams and intervention sequences were randomized. We measured the shift in concentration performance using the d2 test and dexterity using the nine-hole peg test (NHPT). We compared results between the three conditions. For the primary outcome, the non-inferiority margin was set at 20 points. Results Forty-eight paramedics participated. Concentration performance was significantly better after each scenario, with no differences noted between groups: d2 shift control versus with valve − 8.3 (95% CI − 19.4 to 2.7) points; control versus without valve − 8.5 (− 19.7 to 2.7) points; with valve versus without valve 0.1 (− 11.1 to 11.3) points. Similar results were found for the NHPT: + 0.3 (− 0.7 to 1.4), − 0.4 (− 1.4 to 0.7), 0.7 (− 0.4 to 1.8) s respectively. Conclusion Attention increases when performing BLS. Attention and dexterity are not inferior when wearing PPE, including FFP2 masks. PPE should be used on a low-threshold basis.

2022 ◽  
Vol 27 ◽  
Pradeep Ashokcoomar ◽  
Raisuyah Bhagwan

Background: Neonatal care is provided by various levels of healthcare facilities in South Africa. Intensive care for neonates is only provided at the higher levels, hence the need for transfers from lower-level to higher-level facilities (e.g. primary hospitals to tertiary hospitals) or across levels of facilities, particularly when life-threatening situations arise (e.g. cardiac deterioration, respiratory deterioration and desaturation).Aim: The aim of the study was to explore neonatologists’ views regarding the neonatal transfer process and to describe the preparedness of advanced life support (ALS) paramedics to undertake such transfers.Setting: The setting consisted of neonatologists from three provinces i.e. KwaZulu-Natal, Gauteng and Western cape.Method: A qualitative descriptive design was utilised in this study. Semistructured interviews were conducted on the public health hospitals in three provinces (N = 9; n = 3) with neonatologists (N = 7; n = 7) who were involved in the transfers of critically ill neonates. The process of thematic analysis was used.Results: The themes that emerged in this study were: an awareness of local contextual realities related to neonatal transfers, challenges evident within the context of neonatal transfers, decision-making around the transfer of ill neonates, ALS paramedic preparedness for transfers and good clinical governanceConclusion: The study found that there was a need to be aware of local contextual realities confronting neonatal transfers, a need for greater preparedness for paramedics to undertake these transfers, a need for a sound referral processes and a need for coordinated transfer effort between paramedics, hospital staff and transport team members for the successful transfer of critically ill neonates.Contribution: The findings highlight the challenges confronting the neonatal transfer process in South Africa through the lens of neonatologist at public hospitals. Hence, the study reinforces the preparedness and coordination of the transfer process, along with more efficient communication between paramedics, hospital staff and the transfer team.

2022 ◽  
pp. medethics-2021-108003
Katrina A Bramstedt

This brief report presents the global problem of the shortfall of donor corneal tissue for transplantation, a potential root cause (‘ick factor’ language), and a potential solution (modification of ‘ick factor’ language). Specifically, use of the term ‘eye donation’ is a potential hurdle to ocular tissue donation as it can stimulate the ‘ick factor.’ Verbiage such as ‘ocular (eye tissue)’ could be a method of providing terminology that is less emotive than ‘eye donor’ or ‘eye donation.’ The field of transplantation has experienced terminology shifts over time; for example, ‘cadaver’ has been replaced with ‘deceased donor,’ ‘harvest’ has been replaced with ‘recover,’ and ‘life support’ has been replaced with ‘ventilated.’ Notably, only a small number of regions worldwide are using ‘ocular’ terminology, yet it could be an important step to enhancing the informed consent process and improving donation rates, potentially increasing transplant and optimising patient quality of life for those with treatable blindness.

2022 ◽  
James T Bates ◽  
Christopher W Kelly ◽  
Joshua E Lane

ABSTRACT Introduction Exsanguination is the leading cause of preventable death on the battlefield and in austere environments. Multiple courses have been developed to save lives by stopping hemorrhage. Training for this requires simulation models; however, many models are expensive, preventing the further expansion of this life-saving training. We present a low-cost model for hemorrhage training and realistic moulage based on simple medical supplies and grocery store meats. Materials and Methods Wound packing training was completed by use of a block of pork shoulder roast with an incision simulating a wound and IV tubing connected to a syringe with fake blood. Hemostasis was obtained with proper wound packing by the student, causing the bleeding to be tamponaded. Wound moulage utilized remaining supplies of pork roast being attached to patient actors or mannequins and adorned with fake blood creating wounds with the appearance and feel of real tissues. Results Tactical Combat Casualty Care (TCCC) training was completed at a small military medical facility with a start-up cost of less than $70 and a single course as cheap as $15. These methods have been utilized to establish other TCCC training centers while keeping costs low. Conclusions We present low-cost models for simulating massive hemorrhage for wound packing with pork roast and realistic moulage. These methods can be utilized for other hemorrhage training courses such as TCCC, Advanced Wilderness Life Support, and Stop the Bleed.

Extremophiles ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 26 (1) ◽  
Rosa Santomartino ◽  
Luis Zea ◽  
Charles S. Cockell

AbstractAs we aim to expand human presence in space, we need to find viable approaches to achieve independence from terrestrial resources. Space biomining of the Moon, Mars and asteroids has been indicated as one of the promising approaches to achieve in-situ resource utilization by the main space agencies. Structural and expensive metals, essential mineral nutrients, water, oxygen and volatiles could be potentially extracted from extraterrestrial regolith and rocks using microbial-based biotechnologies. The use of bioleaching microorganisms could also be applied to space bioremediation, recycling of waste and to reinforce regenerative life support systems. However, the science around space biomining is still young. Relevant differences between terrestrial and extraterrestrial conditions exist, including the rock types and ores available for mining, and a direct application of established terrestrial biomining techniques may not be a possibility. It is, therefore, necessary to invest in terrestrial and space-based research of specific methods for space applications to learn the effects of space conditions on biomining and bioremediation, expand our knowledge on organotrophic and community-based bioleaching mechanisms, as well as on anaerobic biomining, and investigate the use of synthetic biology to overcome limitations posed by the space environments.

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