grey water reuse
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2019 ◽  
Vol 172 ◽  
pp. 316-322
M.N. Taher ◽  
J. Awayes ◽  
S. Cavkas ◽  
B. Beler-Baykal

2018 ◽  
Vol 116 ◽  
pp. 96-102 ◽  
Hongbo Liu ◽  
Yangyang Yao ◽  
Zihua Chen ◽  
Feng Leng ◽  
Xinyu Zhou

2016 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-13 ◽  
Jie Zhu ◽  
Martin Wagner ◽  
Peter Cornel ◽  
Hongbin Chen ◽  
Xiaohu Dai

Abstract Although the total reuse rate of municipal wastewater was 8.8% in China in 2012, water crisis is forcing China to increasingly develop water reuse. Urban reuse is comparatively poor and has significant potential to be promoted in China. It is a sensitive matter whether to include kitchen wastewater in grey-water reuse in water-deficient areas when kitchen wastewater accounts for a large proportion of total domestic water consumption. Concentrations of chemical oxygen demand, BOD5 (biochemical oxygen demand), and total organic carbon in kitchen wastewater are comparatively lower in China than in other countries, but a high concentration of nitrogen from washing tableware and rice makes it difficult to meet nitrogen requirements in Chinese guidelines. Whether kitchen wastewater should be included in grey-water reuse in China needs further study. Aerobic biological processes combined with physical filtration and/or disinfection is preferred in grey-water treatment, and how to balance the investment and treatment costs with reuse criteria still needs to be researched further. The promotion of reclaimed water for toilet flushing faces resistance in China. The necessity and effectiveness of existing restrictions in water reuse guidelines for toilet flushing in China are in doubt and need further discussion.

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