water reuse
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2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (5) ◽  
pp. 101681
S. Khairy ◽  
M. Shaban ◽  
A.M. Negm ◽  
O.W. Eldeen ◽  
Elsayed M. Ramadan

2022 ◽  
Vol 263 ◽  
pp. 107435
Antonio Bolinches ◽  
Irene Blanco-Gutiérrez ◽  
Sergio Zubelzu ◽  
Paloma Esteve ◽  
Almudena Gómez-Ramos

2022 ◽  
Vol 304 ◽  
pp. 114295
G.L. Chathurika L. Bandara ◽  
Isuru S.A. Abeysiriwardana-Arachchige ◽  
Xuesong Xu ◽  
Lu Lin ◽  
Wenbin Jiang ◽  

2022 ◽  
Bolinches Antonio ◽  
Blanco Gutiérrez Irene ◽  
Zubelzu S. ◽  
Esteve Paloma ◽  
Gómez Ramos Almudena

Discover Food ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 2 (1) ◽  
R. L. Bailone ◽  
R. C. Borra ◽  
H. C. S. Fukushima ◽  
L. K. Aguiar

AbstractDue to the significant growing demand for water, it is urgent to those in the food industry to consider a more rational and sustainable use of such a scarce natural resource. This chapter highlights alternative food processing methods that contemplate recycling and reusing water. Based on a systematic literature review, it highlights the adoption of cleaner production methods. The chapter focus on the meat and fresh produce sectors where evidence shows that water sustainability related methods is the most needed. Suggestions are proposed to minimize water waste through the treatment of effluents and decrease the impact of effluent pollution on the environment. In so doing, clear environmental and economic benefits could be achieved through the reduction of costs and value-adding to the final product. Yet, the implementation of Cleaner Production Methods would require support from the industry, policymakers, and consumers to encourage the recycling and reuse of water.

Water ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 116
Aneeba Rashid ◽  
Safdar A. Mirza ◽  
Ciara Keating ◽  
Umer Z. Ijaz ◽  
Sikander Ali ◽  

Raw hospital wastewater is a source of excessive heavy metals and pharmaceutical pollutants. In water-stressed countries such as Pakistan, the practice of unsafe reuse by local farmers for crop irrigation is of major concern. In our previous work, we developed a low-cost bacterial consortium wastewater treatment method. Here, in a two-part study, we first aimed to find what physico-chemical parameters were the most important for differentiating consortium-treated and untreated wastewater for its safe reuse. This was achieved using a Kruskal–Wallis test on a suite of physico-chemical measurements to find those parameters which were differentially abundant between consortium-treated and untreated wastewater. The differentially abundant parameters were then input to a Random Forest classifier. The classifier showed that ‘turbidity’ was the most influential parameter for predicting biotreatment. In the second part of our study, we wanted to know if the consortium-treated wastewater was safe for crop irrigation. We therefore carried out a plant growth experiment using a range of popular crop plants in Pakistan (Radish, Cauliflower, Hot pepper, Rice and Wheat), which were grown using irrigation from consortium-treated and untreated hospital wastewater at a range of dilutions (turbidity levels) and performed a phytotoxicity assessment. Our results showed an increasing trend in germination indices and a decreasing one in phytotoxicity indices in plants after irrigation with consortium-treated hospital wastewater (at each dilution/turbidity measure). The comparative study of growth between plants showed the following trend: Cauliflower > Radish > Wheat > Rice > Hot pepper. Cauliflower was the most adaptive plant (PI: −0.28, −0.13, −0.16, −0.06) for the treated hospital wastewater, while hot pepper was susceptible for reuse; hence, we conclude that bacterial consortium-treated hospital wastewater is safe for reuse for the irrigation of cauliflower, radish, wheat and rice. We further conclude that turbidity is the most influential parameter for predicting bio-treatment efficiency prior to water reuse. This method, therefore, could represent a low-cost, low-tech and safe means for farmers to grow crops in water stressed areas.

2022 ◽  
Vol 961 (1) ◽  
pp. 012059
Sara Mohannad Abd Al-Hamza ◽  
Hayder Mohammed Abd Al-Hamed

Abstract One of the most significant issues that people throughout the world will confront in the future years is a lack of clean and safe water. Anthropogenic activities, in particular, are polluting water systems. With rising population, urbanization, and climate change, water reuse has become a requirement in some areas of the globe, putting pressure on the development of effective water treatment methods for a range of contaminants. High biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), oil-grease, and other pollutant loads define dairy sector effluent. Improved technology is required to address these issues. Electrocoagulation is a new type of therapy. It’s simple to use, ecologically friendly, and removes a wide range of contaminants from a variety of water types. The goal of this study was to see how operational factors such applied voltage, number of electrodes, distance between electrodes, electrode shape, and reaction time affected the electrocoagulation of actual dairy effluent. Aluminum and iron electrodes are used for this purpose. It was discovered that raising the applied voltage, reaction time, and decreasing the distance between electrodes improved COD, BOD, EC, TDS, color, and oil-grease removal efficiency. Moreover, switch between square, triangular electrodes and perforated cylindrical. The data show that electrocoagulation is effective at the maximum COD, BOD removal efficiency of first electrode at 20 holes of cylindrical shape is (88.03) %, (87.97) %, respectively. Second triangle shape is (100) %, (100) % respectively. Third square shape is (99.38) %, (99.42) % respectively. the maximum removal of TDS, EC efficiency of first electrode at 20 holes of cylindrical shape is (67.57) %, (62.34) %, respectively. Second triangle shape is (77.45) %, (67.68) % respectively. Third square shape is (81.96) %, (71.25) % respectively. The maximum color and oil-grease removal efficiency of first electrode at 20 holes of cylindrical shape is (100) %, (100) %, respectively. Second triangle shape is (100) %, (100) % respectively. Third square shape is (100) %, (100) % respectively. Electrocoagulation methods for the treatment of dairy wastewaters were shown to be successful in the research. Finally, the findings indicated that electrocoagulation is a technically feasible method for removing contaminants from dairy wastewaters.

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