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2022 ◽  
Vol 281 ◽  
pp. 119853
Da-Wei Yang ◽  
Shi-Lin Jiang ◽  
Ya-Lan Liu ◽  
Jun-Shan Geng ◽  
Mei Li ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 575 ◽  
pp. 121198
Agnieszka Dołęga ◽  
Piotr M. Zieliński

Ai-ris Y. Collier ◽  
Jingyou Yu ◽  
Katherine McMahan ◽  
Jinyan Liu ◽  
Abishek Chandrashekar ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Matthias M. Schneider ◽  
Saurabh Gautam ◽  
Therese W. Herling ◽  
Ewa Andrzejewska ◽  
Georg Krainer ◽  

AbstractMolecular chaperones contribute to the maintenance of cellular protein homoeostasis through assisting de novo protein folding and preventing amyloid formation. Chaperones of the Hsp70 family can further disaggregate otherwise irreversible aggregate species such as α-synuclein fibrils, which accumulate in Parkinson’s disease. However, the mechanisms and kinetics of this key functionality are only partially understood. Here, we combine microfluidic measurements with chemical kinetics to study α-synuclein disaggregation. We show that Hsc70 together with its co-chaperones DnaJB1 and Apg2 can completely reverse α-synuclein aggregation back to its soluble monomeric state. This reaction proceeds through first-order kinetics where monomer units are removed directly from the fibril ends with little contribution from intermediate fibril fragmentation steps. These findings extend our mechanistic understanding of the role of chaperones in the suppression of amyloid proliferation and in aggregate clearance, and inform on possibilities and limitations of this strategy in the development of therapeutics against synucleinopathies.

2021 ◽  
Ana H. Sales ◽  
Sam Ciervo ◽  
Tania Lupoli ◽  
Vladimir Shafirovich ◽  
Nicholas E Geacintov

The SARS 2 (Covid 19) helicase nsp13 plays a critically important role in the replication of the Corona virus by unwinding double-stranded RNA (and DNA) with a 5 prime to 3 prime strand polarity. Here we explored the impact of single, structurally defined covalent DNA lesions on the helicase activity of nsp13 in aqueous solutions, The objectives were to derive mechanistic insights into the relationships between the structures of DNA lesions, the DNA distortions that they engender, and the inhibition of helicase activity. The lesions included two bulky stereoisomeric N2-guanine adducts derived from the reactions of benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide with DNA. The trans-adduct assumes a minor groove conformation, while the cis-product adopts a base-displaced intercalated conformation. The non-bulky DNA lesions included the intra-strand cross-linked thymine dimers, the cis-syn-cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer, and the pyrimidine (6–4) pyrimidone photoproduct. All four lesions strongly inhibit the helicase activity of nsp13, The UV photolesions feature a 2 - 5-fold smaller inhibition of the nsp13 unwinding activity than the bulky DNA adducts, and the kinetics of these two pairs of DNA lesions are also different. The connections between the structural features of these four DNA lesions and their impact on nsp13 unwinding efficiencies are discussed.

2021 ◽  
Feng Li ◽  
Ke Fan ◽  
Peiyu Hou ◽  
Haitao Huang

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (20) ◽  
pp. 9557
Iris Ramaj ◽  
Steffen Schock ◽  
Joachim Müller

The management of moisture is one of the main challenges in anticipating and averting food decay and food losses during postharvest processing and storage. Hence, it is imperative to reduce the moisture of freshly harvested products to safe-storage limits in order to inhibit the occurrence of diverse biochemical, microbiological and other moisture-related deteriorative reactions which can contribute to quality degradation. A viable alternative to conventional hot-air drying is the application of low temperatures for drying, which has scarcely been investigated. In this regard, experimental-based modeling is a requisite to gain insights into drying processes. Thus, this study focused on investigating the drying kinetics of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cv. ‘Pionier’ under a coherent set of drying air temperatures (T = 10–50 °C), relative humidity (RH = 20–60%), and airflow velocity (v = 0.15–1.00 ms−1). A robust and automated measurement system using a high precision balance was utilized as a basis for the real-time and continuous acquisition of drying data. The analysis of the experimental results facilitated the establishment of generalized drying model for low temperatures able to describe at a high accuracy the behavior of moisture ratio X* (R2 = 0.997, RMSE = 1.285 × 10−2, MAPE = 6.5%). An analytical model for predicting the effective diffusion coefficients D (R2 = 0.988, RMSE = 4.239 × 10−2, MAPE = 7.7%) was also developed. In conclusion, the anticipated drying model has demonstrated the capability of modeling the drying behavior of wheat at low temperatures with a high temporal resolution and should be employed in the design, analysis and modeling of cooling, aeration and low-temperature drying processes of wheat bulks.

2021 ◽  
Pushpinder Kaur Brar ◽  
Balpreet Kaur Kang ◽  
Rozy Rasool ◽  
Pardeep Kumar Chhuneja

2021 ◽  
Xinwei Wang ◽  
Jundie Hu ◽  
Jiafu Qu ◽  
Guangming Cao ◽  
Jiaqi Jin ◽  

Polymers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (20) ◽  
pp. 3497
Ricardo Acosta Ortiz ◽  
Jefferson Alberto Reynoza Dávila ◽  
Ramiro Guerrero Santos

This article describes a comprehensive study to obtain polymeric porous materials via a photopolymerization technique, using acrylate-based high internal phase emulsions (HIPEs), as a template. The aim of obtaining these polymers was to use them as hydrocarbon absorbing materials. Kinetics of photopolymerization of the acrylate monomers and of the HIPEs were conducted to optimize the process. The obtained monoliths were characterized by thermal analysis such as differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The morphology and surface area were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) analysis. The compression properties of the materials were determined, as well as their absorption properties of hydrocarbons such as hexane, diesel, toluene and chloroform. The findings show that the acrylate-HIPEs displayed high reactivity photopolymerizing in 20 min. The glass transition temperature of the materials were in the range of 2 to 83 °C, depending on the ratio of acrylates in the photocurable formulation, displaying the characteristic morphology with voids and interconnecting windows. The polyHIPEs exhibited superior properties of absorption of the studied hydrocarbons. The order of capability of absorption was chloroform > toluene > hexane > diesel. The optimum absorbing material was that with trimethylolpropane triacrylate, ethylhexyl acrylate and isobornyl acrylate in a 1:0.9:2.1 ratio, which absorbed 778% of chloroform, 378% of toluene, 306 % of hexane and 236% of diesel.

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