Red Mud
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2022 ◽  
Vol 178 ◽  
pp. 107394
Jianwen Yu ◽  
Yanfeng Li ◽  
Yang Lv ◽  
Yuexin Han ◽  
Peng Gao

2022 ◽  
Vol 321 ◽  
pp. 125564
Zengqing Sun ◽  
Qingyu Tang ◽  
Buhle Sinaye Xakalashe ◽  
Xiaohui Fan ◽  
Min Gan ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 254 ◽  
pp. 115214
Jinshuai Ba ◽  
Guangtao Wei ◽  
Zhongmin Li ◽  
Linye Zhang ◽  
Ruinan Pei ◽  
Red Mud ◽  

Materials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 580
Jiaming Wu ◽  
Tianyu Lei ◽  
Beibei Wang ◽  
Shuwei Ma ◽  
Yulong Lin ◽  

The alkaline components in red mud represent one of the crucial factors restricting its application, especially for the construction and building industry. The phase state of alkaline components has a significant influence on the dealkalization of red mud. In this work, an environmentally friendly acid leaching strategy is proposed by controlling the phase transformation of red mud during active roasting pretreatment. With a moderate roasting temperature, the alkaline component is prevented from converting into insoluble phases. After acid leaching with a low concentration of 0.1 M, a high dealkalization rate of 92.8% is obtained. Besides, the leachate is neutral (pH = 7) and the valuable metals in red mud are well preserved, manifesting a high selectivity and efficiency of diluted acid leaching. The calcination experiment further confirms the practicability of the strategy in the construction field, where the cementitious minerals can be formed in large quantities. Compared with the traditional acid leaching routes, the diluted acid leaching strategy in this work is acid saving with low valuable element consumption. Meanwhile, the secondary pollution issue can be alleviated. Hence, the findings in this work provide a feasible approach for the separation and recovery of alkali and resource utilization of red mud.

Hoc Thang Nguyen ◽  
Quang Minh Do

Red mud (RM) is an industrial waste obtained from the Bayer process which is usually discharged into marine or disposed into a landfill causing pollution for the surrounding water, air, and soils. Thus, disposal of RM is an environmental concern, and it should be recycled effectively. Because RM consists of iron- and aluminum-rich phases, it is possible to be processed into cementitious material and utilized for construction purposes. This research fabricated a type of cement from the mixture of RM and limestone. The mixture was sintered at temperature of 1180 °C to obtain the clinker of the novel hydraulic cement with C2S, C3A, and C4AF minerals. In which, C2S, C3A, and C4AF are respectively belite, alite, and tetra-calcium aluminoferrite compounds that are characteristic hydraulic minerals of Portland cement clinker. The specifications of this cement were tested and evaluated in this study such as chemical and mineralogical compositions, fineness, specific surface area, mechanical strength after 3, 7, and 28 days.

2022 ◽  
Vol 32 (1) ◽  
Hellna Tehubijuluw ◽  
Riki Subagyo ◽  
Yuly Kusumawati ◽  
Didik Prasetyoko

AbstractPhotocatalytic degradation of Methylene Blue (MB) by zinc oxide/zeolite socony mobile-5 (ZnO/ZSM-5) composites was investigated. The ZSM-5 material was synthesized from red mud by a two-step hydrothermal method to which ZnO loadings at different mass ratios were subsequently performed. Characterizations using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy were carried out to identify the formation of ZSM-5 and ZnO/ZSM-5. ZSM-5 and ZnO/ZSM-5 have cubic microcrystallite morphologies. ZnO loading in the ZnO/ZSM-5 composites was successfully performed and confirmed by the appearance of wurtzite peaks in the XRD spectra that matched the Joint Committee on Powder Diffraction Standards data. The presence of ZnO in ZSM-5 leading resulted in a decrease in the surface area and pore size as confirming by nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherm experiments. The band gap of the samples was measured using UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The optimum photocatalytic degradation of MB was observed at a ZnO loading of 34% w/w dubbed 34-ZnO/ZSM-5. The influence of the initial concentration of MB was also investigated at 80, 90, and 100 mg L− 1 using 34-ZnO/ZSM-5 and ZSM-5. Liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry characterization was performed to analyze the degradation products.

Yue Zhao ◽  
Yun Zhang ◽  
Zhihuai Zhao ◽  
Xuefeng Ma ◽  
Yun Cai

Abstract Considering the urgent need for disposal of red mud and the comprehensive treatment of coal mined-out areas, this paper presented red mud-based cementitious paste filling material (RMFM) to achieve the purpose of green filling treatment. However, the solidification performance of alkaline RMFM for contaminants can be affected when in contact with acid goaf water in practice, which may in turn causes secondary pollution to the surroundings. The leaching tests of RMFM under different pH and redox potential (Eh) conditions were designed to investigate the effects of environmental elements on the solidification performance of RMFM, and primarily investigated the treatment effectiveness of RMFM on goaf water. The test results manifest that the acidic and oxidizing environments could damage the hydration products generated by alkali and sulfate activation, thus affecting the solidification performance, while the alkaline and reducing environments could effectively prevent the release of the contaminants by enhancing the degree of alkali activation and inhibiting oxidation acid forming process. In the possible exposure environment, RMFM could effectively stabilize its own pollutants without secondary pollution. In addition, the powder RMFM samples had significant removal effects on heavy metals, the values of Cu, Pb, and As removal efficiency all reached more than 96.15%.

Yang Lu ◽  
Xiaoming Liu ◽  
Zengqi Zhang ◽  
Yaguang Wang ◽  
Yang Xue ◽  
Red Mud ◽  

Materials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 433
Andrei Shoppert ◽  
Irina Loginova ◽  
Julia Napol’skikh ◽  
Aleksey Kyrchikov ◽  
Leonid Chaikin ◽  

Bauxite residue, known as “red mud,” is a potential raw material for extracting rare-earth elements (REEs). The main REEs (Sc, Y, La, Ce, Nd, Nb, and Sm) from the raw bauxite are concentrated in RM after the Bayer leaching process. The earlier worldwide studies were focused on the scandium (Sc) extraction from RM by concentrated acids to enhance the extraction degree. This leads to the dissolution of major oxides (Fe2O3 and Al2O3) from RM. This article studies the possibility of selective Sc extraction from alkali fusion red mud (RMF) by diluted nitric acid (HNO3) leaching at pH ≥ 2 to prevent co-dissolution of Fe2O3. RMF samples were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). It was revealed that Sc concentration in RMF can reach up to 140–150 mg kg−1. Sc extraction was 71.2% at RMF leaching by HNO3 at pH 2 and 80 °C during 90 min. The leaching solution contained 8 mg L−1 Sc and a high amount of other REEs in the presence of relatively low concentrations of impurity elements such as Fe, Al, Ti, Ca, etc. The kinetic analysis of experimental data by the shrinking core model showed that Sc leaching process is limited by the interfacial diffusion and the diffusion through the product layer. The apparent activation energy (Ea) was 19.5 kJ/mol. The linear dependence of Sc extraction on magnesium (Mg) extraction was revealed. According to EPMA of RMF, Sc is associated with iron minerals rather than Mg. This allows us to conclude that Mg acts as a leaching agent for the extraction of Sc presented in the RMF in an ion-exchangeable phase.

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