biomass char
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2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Pingnan Zhao ◽  
Shen Wang ◽  
Dong Liu ◽  
Hongxu Li ◽  
Song Han ◽  
...  

Abstract In northeastern China, successive years of cultivation have led to a decline in soil quality, a process that is exacerbated by the over-application of chemical fertilizers to ensure staple food production. The large amount of straw produced by cultivation is difficult to effectively use in recent years. There has been an increasing amount of research on the transforming straw into biomass char, but it has often focused on the effects of biomass char addition on soil physicochemical properties, without further exploring the mechanisms of this process and its effects on soil microorganisms. Microorganisms are an important part of the soil system and the process of how biomass char addition affects microorganisms through its effect on soil physicochemical properties should not be overlooked. In this study, the effect of biochar application at different preparation temperatures (300°C, 400°C and 500°C) and addition contents (0.1% and 1%) on ammonia, nitrate and total nitrogen in soil leachates were investigated. The effect of microbial sequencing on the dynamics of carbon and nitrogen was also investigated to reveal the mechanisms contributing to the changes in nitrogen forms. The results showed that biochar had a better adsorption ability on ammonia nitrogen, and biochar promoted the conversion of ammonia nitrogen to nitrate nitrogen by nitrifying bacteria. The addition of 1% biochar (prepared at 500°C) increased nitrate-nitrogen leaching by 86.52% compared to the control treatment. The sequencing of microorganisms also revealed that biochar changed the structure and abundance of the soil microbial community, especially increasing the relative abundance of the Helicobacter nitrification phylum by 2.02%. These results indicates that biochar facilitated the adsorption of ammonium nitrogen and the conversion of nitrate nitrogen, and solving the problem of low nitrogen fertilizer utilization while promoting the formation of beneficial bacteria in the soil.


Energies ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (21) ◽  
pp. 7229
Author(s):  
Shengguo Zhao ◽  
Liang Ding ◽  
Yun Ruan ◽  
Bin Bai ◽  
Zegang Qiu ◽  
...  

The maximum gasification rate of corn stalk char (CSC) appeared at high conversion range, and its quite different gasification behaviors from other carbonaceous materials are all derived from the catalytic effect of alkali and alkali earth metals (AAEMs), so it is necessary to study the effect of AAEMs and gasification kinetics of such biomass char. However, there are few systematic discussions about this effect and kinetic modeling. Thus, in this study, CSC samples were prepared in a fast pyrolysis fixed-bed reactor, and its gasification experiments were conducted on a pressurized magnetic suspension balance at various total pressures (0.1–0.7 MPa), steam concentrations (10–70 vol.%) and temperatures (725–900 °C). Moreover, a water-leached CSC (H2O-CSC) was also prepared to evaluate the impact of AAEMs on the gasification performance of CSC, and some well-known models were adopted to describe the gasification behaviors. On the basis of these results, the effect of primary AAEMs on the gasification behaviors of CSC and gasification kinetic modeling were obtained. Results showed total pressure had no obvious influence on the gasification rate of CSC, and the reaction order varied at 0.43–0.55 with respect to steam partial pressures. In addition, the modified random pore model (MRPM) and Langmuir–Hinshelwood (L-H) model were satisfactorily applied to predict the gasification behaviors of CSC. The catalytic effect of AAEMs on CSC gasification was weakened due to water-leaching treatment. A random pore model (RPM) could describe the gasification behavior of H2O-CSC well, followed by grain model (GM) and volumetric model (VM).


Catalysts ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (8) ◽  
pp. 939
Author(s):  
Shima Masoumi ◽  
Venu Babu Borugadda ◽  
Sonil Nanda ◽  
Ajay K. Dalai

Recently, due to the escalating usage of non-renewable fossil fuels such as coal, natural gas and petroleum coke in electricity and power generation, and associated issues with pollution and global warming, more attention is being paid to finding alternative renewable fuel sources. Thermochemical and hydrothermal conversion processes have been used to produce biochar and hydrochar, respectively, from waste renewable biomass. Char produced from the thermochemical and hydrothermal decomposition of biomass is considered an environmentally friendly replacement for solid hydrocarbon materials such as coal and petroleum coke. Unlike thermochemically derived biochar, hydrochar has received little attention due to the lack of literature on its production technologies, physicochemical characterization, and applications. This review paper aims to fulfill these objectives and fill the knowledge gaps in the literature relating to hydrochar. Therefore, this review discusses the most recent studies on hydrochar characteristics, reaction mechanisms for char production technology such as hydrothermal carbonization, as well as hydrochar activation and functionalization. In addition, the applications of hydrochar, mainly in the fields of agriculture, pollutant adsorption, catalyst support, bioenergy, carbon sequestration, and electrochemistry are reviewed. With advancements in hydrothermal technologies and other environmentally friendly conversion technologies, hydrochar appears to be an appealing bioresource for a wide variety of energy, environmental, industrial, and commercial applications.


2021 ◽  
Vol 173 ◽  
pp. 318-328
Author(s):  
Wang Liang ◽  
Guangwei Wang ◽  
Kexin Jiao ◽  
Xiaojun Ning ◽  
Jianliang Zhang ◽  
...  

ACS Omega ◽  
2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Han Dang ◽  
Guangwei Wang ◽  
Chen Wang ◽  
Xiaojun Ning ◽  
Jianliang Zhang ◽  
...  

Fuel ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 293 ◽  
pp. 120389
Author(s):  
Haseen Siddiqui ◽  
Ankita Gupta ◽  
Sanjay M. Mahajani

2021 ◽  
Vol 149 ◽  
pp. 185-198
Author(s):  
Kumar Raja Vanapalli ◽  
Jayanta Bhattacharya ◽  
Biswajit Samal ◽  
Subhash Chandra ◽  
Isha Medha ◽  
...  
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