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2022 ◽  
Vol 237 ◽  
pp. 111871
Zhenting Zha ◽  
Zefeng Ge ◽  
Yuna Ma ◽  
Mingxun Zeng ◽  
Yujie Tao ◽  

This study investigated (1) the challenges encountered by a heterogeneous group of first year undergraduates during a synchronous on-line collaborative writing activity conducted through Google Classroom using Google Docs and (2) their perceptions of the pedagogical approach. Five sub-groups of undergraduates participated in the study, and their written transcripts were analysed for patterns of interaction in terms of equality and mutuality based on the Taxonomy of Writing Change Functions and Scaffolding Strategies (Li and Zhu, 2017). Data on learner perceptions were analysed for underlying themes. The findings, which were interpreted from the perspective of the Complex Dynamic Systems Theory, revealed that synchronous on-line collaboration is complex and challenging due to the dynamic patterns of interaction. This study concludes that Google Docs is a useful pedagogical tool and could be used for second language writing development despite the challenges. However, in transferring the findings to other second language learners or learning contexts, caution needs to be applied.

Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 654
Dan Komosny ◽  
Saeed Ur Rehman

COVID-19 has disrupted every field of life and education is not immune to it. Student learning and examinations moved on-line on a few weeks notice, which has created a large workload for academics to grade the assessments and manually detect students’ dishonesty. In this paper, we propose a method to automatically indicate cheating in unproctored on-line exams, when somebody else other than the legitimate student takes the exam. The method is based on the analysis of the student’s on-line traces, which are logged by distance education systems. We work with customized IP geolocation and other data to derive the student’s cheating risk score. We apply the method to approx. 3600 students in 22 courses, where the partial or final on-line exams were unproctored. The found cheating risk scores are presented along with examples of indicated cheatings. The method can be used to select students for knowledge re-validation, or to compare student cheating across courses, age groups, countries, and universities. We compared student cheating risk scores between four academic terms, including two terms of university closure due to COVID-19.

Grzegorz Bielec ◽  
Aneta Omelan

Objective. The COVID-19 pandemic led to restricted access to sports and recreation facilities, resulting in a general decrease in physical activity. Many studies present the results of on-line questionnaires conducted during the pandemic, but there are few reports of objectively measured indicators of physical condition. Thus, the objective of this study was to assess the changes in physical work capacity, body composition, and physical activity behaviors in university students during 14 weeks of lockdown. Material and Methods. Twenty students of Tourism and Recreation (13 female and 7 male) participated in the study. The first examination was conducted in November 2020, and the second in March 2021. Body composition was assessed with a Tanita 418 MA device. The students performed the PWC 170 cycling test and completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (short version) on-line. Results. Neither physical work capacity nor body composition parameters changed substantially during the analyzed period. In the female students, vigorous physical activity decreased significantly, but no substantial changes occurred in weekly metabolic equivalent of task. In male students, walking days and metabolic equivalent of task decreased, but the changes were not significant. Conclusions. Fourteen weeks of COVID-19 lockdown had little effect on the body composition, physical work capacity level, and physical activity habits of Tourism and Recreation students. Studies with larger groups of participants should verify the current conclusions, and care should be taken when extrapolating to other populations.

2022 ◽  
Vol 1 (1) ◽  
pp. 6-14
Muhammad Taufiq ◽  
Noer Laelly Baroroh TAG ◽  
Estin Nofiyanti ◽  
Nandhini Hudha Anggarasari

The Covid-19 pandemic has a direct impact on the environment of society, both regarding aspects of knowledge and aspects of problem solving which are all trial and error or speculative on various things, as a result in the world of education it is also inseparable from various problems, so that not a few end up leading to conflicts or debate. This community service program (PKM) is aimed at SMA Muhammadiyah Pangandaran teachers with the aim of being able to help solve problems, especially those related to the Teaching and Learning Process in the form of networks (online) in the field of science learning. For this reason, it is necessary to have a technology device that can help teaching and learning activities, especially internet-based information technology applications, with the hope that the online teaching and learning process can take place as it should. and motivate teachers to teach. The results of this PKM activity are in the form of increased motivation or enthusiasm for teaching and additional insight into the use of Information Technology (IT) in carrying out the On Line-based Teaching and Learning Process. In conclusion, the PKM which was appointed under the title Science Learning Training Using Information Technology in the Covid-19 Pandemic Period provided an adequate contribution to 32 SMA Muhammadiyah Pangandaran teachers as training participants.

Separations ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 16
Juraj Piestansky ◽  
Andrea Forgacsova ◽  
Dominika Olesova ◽  
Jaroslav Galba ◽  
Peter Mikus ◽  

Neurotransmitters (NT) are widely distributed in the central nervous system. These molecules are important for many physiological processes and the function of the immune system. Imbalance of NT are linked to numerous neurological disorders and diseases, including tauopathies. Here, a targeted approach based on on-line combination of ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry was validated and applied to the quantitative analysis of nine NT (acetylcholine, choline, aspartic acid, asparagine, glutamic acid, glutamine, pyroglutamate, γ-aminobutyric acid, N-acetyl-L-aspartic acid), tryptophan and its metabolite kynurenine in brain tissue samples of a rat model for tauopathy. The applied analytical method was characterized by excellent validation parameters for all analytes, such as limits of detection in the range of 0.01–1.70 µg/mL, regression coefficients of the calibration curves ≥ 0.9946, intra-day and inter-day precision expressed as coefficient of variation in the range of 0.6–11.9% and 0.6–14.4%, and accuracy in the range of 87.6–107.1% and 87.2–119.6%. Our analytical approach led to the identification of increased levels of choline and γ-aminobutyric acid in pons, and elevated concentration levels of pyroglutamate in medulla oblongata. These findings indicate that NT could play a valuable role in the study and clarification of neuroinflammation and neurodegenerative diseases.

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Stina Lundberg ◽  
Erika Roman ◽  
Richard L. Bell

Initial contact with alcohol generally occurs during adolescence, and high consumption during this period is associated with increased risk for later alcohol (AUDs) and/or substance use disorders (SUDs). Rodents selectively bred for high or low alcohol consumption are used to identify behavioral characteristics associated with a propensity for high or low voluntary alcohol intake. The multivariate concentric square field™ (MCSF) is a behavioral test developed to study rodents in a semi-naturalistic setting. Testing in the MCSF creates a comprehensive behavioral profile in a single trial. The current aim was to examine the behavioral profiles of adolescent, bidirectionally selectively bred male and female high alcohol-consuming (P and HAD1/2) and low alcohol-consuming (NP and LAD1/2) rat lines, and outbred Wistar rats. Alcohol-naïve rats were tested once in the MCSF at an age between postnatal days 30 and 35. No common behavioral profile was found for either high or low alcohol-consuming rat lines, and the effect of sex was small. The P/NP and HAD2/LAD2 lines showed within pair-dependent differences, while the HAD1/LAD1 lines were highly similar. The P rats displayed high activity and risk-associated behaviors, whereas HAD2 rats displayed low activity, high shelter-seeking behavior, and open area avoidance. The results from P rats parallel clinical findings that denser family history and risk-taking behavior are strong predictors of future AUDs, often with early onset. Contrarily, the HAD2 behavioral profile was similar to individuals experiencing negative emotionality, which also is associated with a vulnerability to develop, often with a later onset, AUDs and/or SUDs.

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