Medical Ethics
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2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (3) ◽  
pp. 318-329
Author(s):  
M P Jayalath ◽  
R Nanayakkara ◽  
K M P D Jayasundara ◽  
C M Abeysekara ◽  
A M J Abeynayake

ABSTRACT Ethics is the “study of morality – careful and systematic analysis of moral decisions and behaviors and practicing those decisions”. The four ethical principles form the basis of ethical medical practice, namely, autonomy, justice, beneficence, and non-maleficence. A descriptive cross-sectional study was done among 120 specialist medical officers in four selected allopathic healthcare institutions in Sri Lanka, using a pretested validated self-administered questionnaire in 2021 to describe their knowledge, attitudes and practices related to medical ethics. The response rate was 90.00%(n=108). When considering the knowledge and attitudes related to medical ethics it was found that the majority(n=64,59.30%) of the specialist medical officers strongly disagree that “confidentiality is not so important aspect of treatment”. Among the total respondents 26(24.10%) strongly agree and 54 respondents (50%) agree with statement “close relatives should be told about patients condition”. When considering the practices related to medical ethics, we found that “ if a patient wishes to die, he or she should be assisted in doing so no matter what their illness” is  the ethical practice to which 32(29.60%) respondents  strongly disagree with and 56(51.90%) disagree with. We further discovered that 48(44.40%) of the respondents strongly agree and 52(48.10%) agree with the practice “ethics as a part of syllabus should be taught in every medical teaching institution”. These findings imply that Sri Lankan specialist doctors have a sound knowledge and positive attitudes towards the basic ethical principles. But they still need to improve their knowledge and attitudes related to ethical issues regarding their own colleagues. Continuous medical education for specialist medical officers, establishing ethics committees in hospitals, appointing ethicists to hospitals and conducting clinical case conferences regarding unethical practice are recommended to improve the situation.    RESUMEN  La ética es el "estudio de la moralidad, es decir, el análisis cuidadoso y sistemático de las decisiones y comportamientos morales y la práctica de esas decisiones". Los cuatro principios éticos constituyen la base de la práctica médica ética, a saber, la autonomía, la justicia, la beneficencia y la no maleficencia. Se realizó un estudio transversal descriptivo entre 120 médicos especialistas de cuatro instituciones sanitarias alopáticas seleccionadas en Sri Lanka, utilizando un cuestionario autoadministrado validado previamente en 2021 para describir sus conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas relacionadas con la ética médica. La tasa de respuesta fue del 90,00% (n=108). Al considerar los conocimientos y las actitudes relacionados con la ética médica, se descubrió que la mayoría (n=64, 59,30%) de los médicos especialistas están muy en desacuerdo con que "la confidencialidad no es un aspecto tan importante del tratamiento". Del total de encuestados, 26 (24,10%) están muy de acuerdo y 54 (50%) están de acuerdo con la afirmación "se debe informar a los familiares cercanos sobre el estado del paciente". Al considerar las prácticas relacionadas con la ética médica, descubrimos que "si un paciente desea morir, se le debe ayudar a hacerlo sin importar su enfermedad" es la práctica ética con la que 32 (29,60%) encuestados están muy en desacuerdo y 56 (51,90%) están en desacuerdo. Además, descubrimos que 48 (44,40%) de los encuestados están muy de acuerdo y 52 (48,10%) están de acuerdo con la práctica "la ética como parte del programa de estudios debería enseñarse en todas las instituciones de enseñanza médica". Estos resultados implican que los médicos especialistas de Sri Lanka tienen un buen conocimiento y actitudes positivas hacia los principios éticos básicos. Sin embargo, todavía necesitan mejorar sus conocimientos y actitudes en relación con las cuestiones éticas de sus propios colegas. Para mejorar la situación, se recomienda la formación médica continua de los médicos especialistas, la creación de comités de ética en los hospitales, el nombramiento de especialistas en ética en los hospitales y la realización de conferencias sobre casos clínicos relacionados con prácticas no éticas.   


2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (4) ◽  
pp. 388
Author(s):  
Mohd Akhtar Ali ◽  
Hamiduddin

Qarābādhīn can be termed as pharmacopoeia, contains compiled form of compound formulations or recipes. Importance of Qarābādhīn gradually increased and acquired an imperative status. The history of Qarābādhīn starts from Chiron, Aesculapius, Hippocrates, Dioscorides and Galen in Greco-Roman era. Many of early and medieval Islamic and Arab physicians play vital role and immense original contribution in this discipline and authored important and essential Qarābādhīn with systemic and scientific approaches. Although some of them could not reach the present day, many of the manuscripts can be found in various libraries across the world. Since the Arab Caliphates appreciated and patronized the fields of medicine acquired from Greeks and worked for its development, this period also known as “Greco-Arabic era”. In this work the evaluation of Qarābādhīn (particularly written in Arabic or Greek language) was done in historical and regulatory perspective particularly in Greek era and later on in Medieval Islamic era. The findings of the review indicate the importance and regulatory status of Qarābādhīn and provide information about it. It can be helpful to explore Qarābādhīn and related publications of Greek and Medieval Islamic Arabic period, which gives foundations for the present-day pharmacopeias. Since these documents also take into account ethical considerations, its utility in the fields of medicine and medical ethics should be investigated.International Journal of Human and Health Sciences Vol. 05 No. 04 October’21 Page: 388-404


2021 ◽  
pp. medethics-2020-107025
Author(s):  
Samuel Reis-Dennis ◽  
Abram L Brummett

AbstractIn this paper, we argue that providers who conscientiously refuse to provide legal and professionally accepted medical care are not always morally required to refer their patients to willing providers. Indeed, we will argue that refusing to refer is morally admirable in certain instances. In making the case, we show that belief in a sweeping moral duty to refer depends on an implicit assumption that the procedures sanctioned by legal and professional norms are ethically permissible. Focusing on examples of female genital cutting, clitoridectomy and ‘normalizing’ surgery for children with intersex traits, we argue that this assumption is untenable and that providers are not morally required to refer when refusing to perform genuinely unethical procedures. The fact that acceptance of our thesis would force us to face the challenge of distinguishing between ethical and unethical medical practices is a virtue. This is the central task of medical ethics, and we must confront it rather than evade it.


2021 ◽  
Vol 3 ◽  
Author(s):  
Rune Nyrup

Most existing work in digital ethics is modeled on the “principlist” approach to medical ethics, seeking to articulate a small set of general principles to guide ethical decision-making. Critics have highlighted several limitations of such principles, including (1) that they mask ethical disagreements between and within stakeholder communities, and (2) that they provide little guidance for how to resolve trade-offs between different values. This paper argues that efforts to develop responsible digital health practices could benefit from paying closer attention to a different branch of medical ethics, namely public health ethics. In particular, I argue that the influential “accountability for reasonableness” (A4R) approach to public health ethics can help overcome some of the limitations of existing digital ethics principles. A4R seeks to resolve trade-offs through decision-procedures designed according to certain shared procedural values. This allows stakeholders to recognize decisions reached through these procedures as legitimate, despite their underlying disagreements. I discuss the prospects for adapting A4R to the context of responsible digital health and suggest questions for further research.


2021 ◽  
Vol 19 (3) ◽  
pp. 344-355
Author(s):  
V. I. Berezutsky ◽  
◽  
M. S. Berezutskaya ◽  

The narratives based on history of the disease of famous people are an effective pedagogical tool for future physicians’ preparation in medical ethics and psychology. The objective of this study was to analyze the methods that doctors used to inform Frederic Chopin about his disease. Frederic Chopin's and Georges Sand's letters, the works of the composer's biographers as well as scientific publications devoted to Chopin's illness were analysed. The analysis showed that most of Frederic Chopin's physicians hid from him an incurable and fatal diagnosis for ethical reasons. This tactic proved to be effective: Chopin lived for more than 10 years with severe symptoms of pulmonary tuberculosis.


2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (2) ◽  
pp. 72-78
Author(s):  
Wonbong Lee ◽  
Gyunyeol Park

2021 ◽  
Vol 26 (2) ◽  
pp. 188-193
Author(s):  
Hans-Martin Sass ◽  
Hanna Hubenko

Hans-Martin Sass, Honorary Professor of Philosophy (Ruhr University, Bochum, Germany). Founder and board member of the Centre for Medical Ethics (CME), Bochum, Germany. Honorary Senior Research Fellow at Kennedy Institute of Ethics at Georgetown University, Washington, DC. Honorary Professor of the Bioethics Research Centre, Beijing. He has written more than 60 books and pamphlets, more than 250 articles in professional journals. Editor of the Ethik in der Praxis/ Practical ethics, Muenster: Lit. Founder and co-editor of the brochures “Medizinethische Materialien”, Bochum: ZME. He has lectured in Argentina, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Brazil, Canada, Croatia, the Chech Republic, India, Iran, Israel, Italy, Japan, France, the Netherlands, the Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Russia, Spain, Switzerland and Taiwan. The interview devoted to exposition of the concept of bioethics in America and Germany, as well as the professor`s attitude to the idea of the integrative concept of bioethics. The concept of integrative bioethics has been developed in different countries, a component of this concept is the idea of the need for discussion on bioethics in various sectors of society (not only medical). Equally important in this concept are the definitions of bioethics and the bioethical imperative proposed by Fritz Jahr in 1926. The scientist`s article, which was discovered in 1997, contains a new format of bioethical ideas, as well as a valuable opportunity to enhance understanding the term of bioethics as an integrative science. Interview has been conducted by Hanna Hubenko as a part of the joint international course «Integrative Bioethics». At the meeting it was discussed the experience of cooperation and plans for the future. Cooperation and feedback between scientists remains an unconditional prerogative, also in a pandemic situation (to be continued).


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