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2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 185
Author(s):  
Davide Roncarati ◽  
Vincenzo Scarlato ◽  
Andrea Vannini

Since the discovery of penicillin in the first half of the last century, antibiotics have become the pillars of modern medicine for fighting bacterial infections. However, pathogens resistant to antibiotic treatment have increased in recent decades, and efforts to discover new antibiotics have decreased. As a result, it is becoming increasingly difficult to treat bacterial infections successfully, and we look forward to more significant efforts from both governments and the scientific community to research new antibacterial drugs. This perspective article highlights the high potential of bacterial transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulators as targets for developing new drugs. We highlight some recent advances in the search for new compounds that inhibit their biological activity and, as such, appear very promising for treating bacterial infections.


2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 171
Author(s):  
Petr Jaroš ◽  
Maria Vrublevskaya ◽  
Kristýna Lokočová ◽  
Jana Michailidu ◽  
Irena Kolouchová ◽  
...  

The use of antibiotics or antifungals to control infections caused by pathogenic microorganisms is currently insufficiently effective because of their emerging resistance. Thanks to the ability of microorganisms to form a biofilm and thus increase their resistance to administered drugs even more, modern medicine faces the task of finding novel substances to combat infections caused by them. In this regard, the effects of essential oils or plant extracts are often studied. Among the relatively neglected plants is Boswellia serrata, which has a high content of biologically active boswellic acids. In this study, we focused on one of the most common nosocomial infections, which are caused by Candida species. The most common representative is C. albicans, although the number of infections caused by non-albicans species has recently been increasing. We focused on the antifungal activity of Boswellia serrata extract Bioswellix against planktonic and adhering cells of Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis and Candida krusei. The antifungal activity against adhering cells was further explored by determining the metabolic activity of cells (MTT) and determining the total amount of biofilm using crystal violet. Boswellic acid-containing plant extract was shown to suppress the growth of a suspension population of all tested Candida species. Boswellia serrata extract Bioswellix was most effective in inhibiting C. albicans biofilm formation.


Author(s):  
Anna Zyman ◽  
Andrzej Górski ◽  
Ryszard Międzybrodzki

AbstractPhages are viruses which can specifically infect bacteria, resulting in their destruction. Bacterial infections are a common complication of wound healing, and experimental evidence from animal models demonstrates promising potential for phage-dependent eradication of wound-associated infections. The studies discussed suggest that phage therapy may be an effective treatment, with important advantages over some current antibacterial treatments. Phage cocktails, as well as co-administration of phages and antibiotics, have been reported to minimise bacterial resistance. Further, phage-antibiotic synergism has been reported in some studies. The ideal dose of phages is still subject to debate, with evidence for both high and low doses to yield therapeutic effects. Novel delivery methods, such as hydrogels, are being explored for their advantages in topical wound healing. There are more and more Good Manufacturing Practice facilities dedicated to manufacturing phage products and phage therapy units across the world, showing the changing perception of phages which is occurring. However, further research is needed to secure the place of phages in modern medicine, with some scientists calling upon the World Health Organisation to help promote phage therapy.


2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. 01-07
Author(s):  
Mohammad Azizur Rahman ◽  
Tawhidur Rahman ◽  
Moshiur Rahman ◽  
Mirza Arif

The present article reviews the history of mushroom uses in culinary, food and medicinal values; current status and future aspect of mushroom research. Mushrooms contain biologically active polysaccharides, lipid and proteins in fruit bodies, each of them has a distinct role in health as either nutritional value or medicinal elements. Immunostimulating polysaccharides found in mushrooms, are most important for modern medicine. Several of the mushroom biomolecules have undergone phase I, II, and III clinical trials and are used extensively and successfully throughout the world for the treatment of various cancers and other diseases. Medicinal functions played by the mushrooms include antitumor, antibacterial, antioxidant, antiparasitic, antidiabetic, detoxification, cardiovascular, antihypercholesterolemia, antiviral, antifungal, hepatoprotective, immunomodulating and free radical scavenging. The present review draws attention to nutritional and medicinal importance of mushroom as well as the problems and opportunity in the future development of mushroom research.


Author(s):  
Harish P. ◽  
Sreedhar S. ◽  
Kunhikoyamu . ◽  
Namboothiri M. ◽  
Devi S. ◽  
...  

Artificial intelligence (AI) can be demonstrated as intelligence demonstrated by machines.AI research has gone through different phases like simulating the brain, modeling human problem solving, formal logic, large databases of knowledge and imitating animal behavior. In the beginning of 21st century, highly mathematical statistical machine learning has dominated the field, was found useful and considered in helping to solve many challenging problems throughout industry and academia. The domain was discovered and work was done on the assumption that human intelligence can be simulated by machines. These initiate some discussions in raising queries about the mind and the ethics of creating artificial beings with human-like intelligence. Myth, fiction, and philosophy are involved in the creation of this field. The debates and discussion also point to concerns of misuse regarding this technology.  


Author(s):  
ILYA GULYAKIN

Modern medicine has achieved significant results in the development of techniques to avoid surgeries. However, surgical methods are still one of the main tools for treating pathologies in the human body. Plastic surgery and cosmetology are gaining popularity every year, and sports injuries require the use of combined treatment methods, but any such intervention leads to the risk of keloids. The younger the person, the higher the likelihood of developing a keloid, due to the high degree of elasticity of the skin at an earlier age, which is prone to scarring than in older people. Women are at higher risk of developing keloids than men because their skin is more elastic. Thus, children and young women are most at risk of keloid formation, both as a result of physiological processes of skin scarring and preference for plastic surgery, cosmetic procedures and other methods of correction. In world pharmaceutical practice, there are not enough existing ways to prevent the development of keloid. It is necessary to conduct research on the selection of a fundamentally new structural basis for a transdermal therapeutic system containing the most effective and safe compounds of the regenerating and antioxidant mechanisms of action (vitamins and other biologically active compounds) from the point of view of preventing the formation of keloids, which will help in solving the problem of not only preventing the formation of keloids in the dermis, but also its subsequent growth and exit to the surface layers of the skin.


Author(s):  
Rabia Ayoubi ◽  
Sadia Wali ◽  
Gyanesh B Singh

Ocimum kilimandscharicum Guerke, a member of the family Lamiaceae, is a valuable medicinal plant used both in traditional and modern medicine. It is a perennial aromatic undershrub with tremendous phytochemical polymorphism. The present study aims to assess the amount of eugenol in the essential oil (EO) of O. kilimandscharicum. Eugenol is one of the most popular phenolic compounds, which is naturally synthesized and extracted from the EO of different plant species. The fresh leaves and flowers of O. kilimandsharicum were used to extract EO using a hydrodistillation method. Ultraviolet (UV) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometry techniques were used to assess and quantify the chemical fingerprint of the EO and their main phytoconstituents. In this study, eugenol showed its peak absorbance to be around 282 nm in both the EO and pure eugenol spectra. The FTIR spectra of the EO and eugenol showed different functional groups determined by comparing the vibration frequencies in wave numbers of the EO and eugenol spectra with those of an IR correlation chart. Eugenol is a well-known phenolic compound with medicinal and economic value. The UV and FTIR spectra of the EO of O. kilimandsharicum proved the presence of a high amount of eugenol in the O. kilimandscharicum plant.


2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-8
Author(s):  
Linghua Yu ◽  
Xiaoyan Lu ◽  
Chenxi Xu ◽  
Tong Li ◽  
Yanling Wang ◽  
...  

Previous research and treatment of coronary heart disease mostly focused on the large epicardial vessels, with limited research on the small endocardial coronary arteries or arterioles that could not be detected by coronary angiography, especially microvascular angina caused by microvascular stenosis or microcirculation dysfunction. Conventional Western medicine therapies have no specific efficacy, but traditional Chinese medicine has significant advantages in this regard. In particular, traditional Chinese medicine of supplementing Qi and activating blood circulation protects the vascular endothelium, relaxes coronary microvessels, reduces myocardial no-reflow after ischemia-reperfusion, increases myocardial hypoxia tolerance, constrains the aggregation of platelet, and increases the rate of blood flow. Moreover, these treatments can significantly improve patients’ symptoms through multitarget comprehensive intervention. Here, we analyzed the pathogenesis of microvascular angina pectoris, the treatment status of modern medicine, and the research on the multitarget intervention of traditional Chinese medicine to provide new research ideas for correctly identifying the role of coronary microcirculation in coronary artery disease to solve clinical problems and prevent cardiovascular events.


2022 ◽  
Vol 99 (7-8) ◽  
pp. 409-413
Author(s):  
P. E. Krynyukov ◽  
V. B. Simonenko ◽  
V. G. Abashin ◽  
G. R. Musailov

The article deals with the history of the origin of Hippocratic Oath, the main issues of professional medical (medical) ethics (bioethics) from the standpoint of modern trends in the development of medicine: euthanasia, induced abortion, gender relations and transgender transition.


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